Thursday, February 28, 2019
In Stephen Marches article Is Facebook do Us Lonely? (2013) Marche suggests that over time, loneliness is becoming more(prenominal) prominent in todays society. Marche develops his claim by using umteen published research and scholarly articles. In order to actualize readers certified of this growing epidemic, Marches purpose is to show that by using Facebook mint are becoming more seized. The target audience for this article is Facebook users and population who are interested in joining. Although Marche argues that Facebook is making people lonely, Facebook doesnt isolate people because of the many networking features such as sending messages and writing on walls.After reading Marches article, I was confused because I resist with his opinion of Facebook. Marche suggests that Facebook is making people lonely, but I believe that Marches correlation between Facebook and loneliness is mere speculation. Marche begs the question Does the internet make people lonely or are lonely people more attracted to the internet? (278) I agree with the Australian turn over Who Uses Facebook? The study concludes, hatful who have unhappy family relationships in the first place seek society through other means, including Facebook. (279)Marches argument is weak because his lack of evidence, disrespect his research. Marche states Facebook arrived in the middle of a dramatic increase in the step and intensity of human loneliness. (275) This statement proves that Facebook is not the cause of the increase in loneliness. Some of Marches research disproves his correlation between Facebook and loneliness. Moira Burk (graduate student) conducted a study that does not support the assertion that Facebook creates loneliness. Burke concluded People who incur loneliness on Facebook are lonely away from Facebook. Facebook is a political program for lonely skulking. (280)Work CitedMarche Stephen. Is Facebook Making Us Lonely. Connections Guide to First socio-economic class Writing Clayton State University. Mary Lamb. Southlake Fountain Head Press. 2013. 273-284. Print
The Difference between a Hero and a tragical Hero The tragic maven is virtuoso of the most interesting characters at heart a Greek or Roman play. They depict many emotions and frequently their lives end in a horrible disaster. When we call up of a hero, what mechanically comes to mind? To some it may be someone legendary. Others might think of a hero as someone of neat strength or ability. Perhaps someone admired for their achievements and great qualities.To me, it once meant someone that showed great fortitude and function . A real hero is someone who faces ordinary challenges bravely and lives with a smile despite problems and shortcomings and sometimes even having phantasmal powers of some sort. Before these two heroes can be compared and contrasted, it is imperative to populate what a tragic hero mustiness possess in coiffure to be called a tragic hero. A tragic hero must contain the following features a tragic hero always had characteristics resembling greatness an d a noble stature, they must have a deadly flaw, that in most cases lead them to be partly responsible for their profess demise, usually their punishment outweighs their crime, and then, of course, sometime during where the tragedy takes place there should be some sort of self-realization for that character. This is where they realize their mistake.One prominent characteristic of a tragic hero is portrayed specifically in the play Macbeth by Shakespeare, the tragic hero Macbeth was a victim of his doubt and insecurity. Thus, the heros downfall is overdue to his own errors and actions. A tragic hero has to suffer because of his own mistakes. He is doomed from the start he bears no responsibility for possessing his flaw, but bears responsibility for his actions.He is usually a king, a leader of men and his fate affects non only his but the lives of a whole nation or name of people. Tragic heroes are without a doubt one of the most interest of characters. A Traditional hero is a person of distinguished courage or ability, admired for his brave deeds and noble qualities. A hero is any person who has heroic qualities or has performed heroic acts and is regarded as a model or ideal to follow He represents a authoritative image of a human being, physically, mentally, and emotionally.He is loved by all and cherish for his noble deeds. He always takes up distinctive tasks which no one else ever dares to and may come across much adversity that which he fights with his endurance and valor and eventually reaches victory with a confident heart. He has qualities like courage, honesty and willingness to sacrifice. But most of all, he stands for everything we love to collar ourselves as. That is why they are so popularly favored by many.
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
Wipro is an Indian multinational, provider of information applied science function, consulting, outsourcing services and research and development services. It is headquartered inBangalore, Karnataka, India. As of 2012, the company has all told over 1,30,000 employees and a worldwide presence with global centers across 54 countries. military personnel resource management may be defined as a set of policies, programmes and practices designed to maximize both personal and organizational objectives. OBJECTIVES OF WIPRO HRM * potent utilization of the available gentle resources. * Organizational structure of relationship. maturation of human resource and rewarding them. * Compatibility of individual goals with those of the organization. * Maintain high morale of the employees. ACTIVITIES OF HRM * Recruitment. * Selection. * organisation. * Training. * operation Appraisal. * Compensation. * Maintenance. RECRUITMENT Wipros recruitment consists of three rounds. ROUND 1 * write tes t. * Verbal test. * Aptitude test. * Technical test. ROUND 2 Round 2 is a technical test. ROUND 3 Round 3 is the closing stage of the recruitment functioning and it concludes with the HR meeting.Wipro Recruitment Drive create by IPSR c atomic number 18er center on Thursday, 7th October 2010 was another hitment in a long line of others. The venue BVM College, Cherppunkal, Kottayam was teeming with candidates from all over the state. More than 600 job seekers attended the event, with a good 312 candidates having been littlelisted agreement Upon joining, the incumbent shall be prone an employee code number byManager(HR) and he shall fill up the joining forms and shall submit the same to the Manager(HR) for further channel of action. Wipro recruit 40%employeesfrom campusrecruitment.Anotherpopularsourcefor Wipros Recruitment is the Online Placement through National Skill Registry (NSA). Wipros campus placement for the grade 2010-2011 TRAINING At Wipro, The HR department know s how critical time is for fulfilling cookery needs and hence developed competency in the atomic number 18a of speedy learning. An emerging form of kernel development, Rapid Learning helps to develop content in a short span of time using variant spears. Wipro has strategic partnerships with leading technology provider to help employees choose the tool that suits their requirement best.Based on research conducted in this ara, Rapid Content Development can be used for any of the following content areas * unfavourable training. * Minor change. * Short shelf life. * Frequent updates. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL ar good deal developing as fast as the business is abject? In order to answer performance related questions, Wipro offers an integrated end-to-end performance management solutions. This solution is based on global people processes drawn from best practices and helps organization steam line their performance and valuation process.Wipros workManagement solution not only help s you open the best practices in Performance Management like360degree appraisal, MBO, etc, barely enables decreased Performance Management cycle time without compromising on the sub-processes which are so critical to HR values, like prepare Planning Conference, Work Plan Establishment, Development plans and Objective setting, Interim Review, Overall evaluation, detecting Performance deficiencies, Tracking, Documentation and Archiving. Once reviewed by HR dept. Assistant (HR) updates the records for each employees score in the database.COMPENSATION Compensation is a systematic approach to providing monetary value to employees in exchange for work performed. Compensation may achieve several purposes assisting in recruitment, job performance, and job satisfaction. Wages and salaries structure is really vital for the retention of the employees as due to stiff competition if comme il faut salary is not given then the employees might shift to organizations providing higher(prenomin al) salary. Therefore proper salary along with various other bonus methods should be used to retain the current employee work force.Recently Wipro increased honorarium for its employees by 8%. EMPLOYEE WELFARE ACTIVITES 1) Education Wipro has its own institute, where education is given to the employees children absolutely free. The school has classes from JR. kg to class-XII and is an english medium school. excess transportation facility isalso provided to them. 2) Medical Companys doctrine is Nobody should die without fund. Company believes its responsibility towards health services to the provident of the employees go beyond the statutory provision. Being the petrochemical ndustry some of their process are considered hazardous. The company recognises the importance of good occupational health services. Therefore,atthemanufacturingsites, they have well equipped, full fledged medical centre which are manned round the clock. 3) Housing The company has its own town at different loc ations in Bangalore. If a house is available, the new employees are allotted the house otherwise the company can also plight a house. All the maintenance houses provided to employees by company is done bythe company. ) Canteen The company gives mobile canteen facility under which food is provided to the employees but it is not compulsory for them. The employees get the allowance in their salary. The Contract cubicle at Wipro invites tenders and the Contractcell signs detailed agreement with the contractor. The operation of the canteen is given on the contract. 5) Sports To motivate the employees the company organises different sport tournaments i. e. Cricket, Volleyball, gameboard Tennis, Badminton, etc. ) Recreational activities For the recreation of the employees, the company organises a get in concert with the families once in a year. The company also arranges for a short hold picnic for which the employess are allowed Rs. 100/- and free transportation. 7) Club rank The purpo se of the club membership is to meet other members of the industrial residential district and interact with them for relation personnel leisure. 8) Insurance Policy Wipro provides personal solidus insurance policy of Rs 100000 for employees.Premium of the company is half pay by employee and other will be paid by Wipro. annual pull out Every employee gets an annual leave of 30 long time and if more than 30 days is taken, then leave will be deducted from the next year. ANNUAL SICK DAYS In a year, 5 days are given as leave for sick days. If more than 5 days are taken, a certain amount will be deducted from the salary. teaching * Learning through internet is provided. * Education tie-ups It provides Post Graduate software package Management (PGSM) program. It also gives middle management course for 5 weeks and distance learning.BENEFITS * Medical assistance program is provided to all its employees. * Interest free loanword is also provided to all its employees. * It provides cred it cards for the employees as per the policy. * It provides Wipro Employee Stock excerption Plan which allows Wipro to enable its employees to share the success of the company and be rewarded. science & REWARD * Wipro Hall of Frame. * Mastermind. * Thanks a zillion. * Dear boss. HUMAN resourcefulness MANAGEMENT ON WIPRO VIKRAM ADITYA KAR (1210721) NEHA RATHI (1210733) ASHWARIYA NAG (1210784)
Case Studies Abstract Alfredo Cano Abstract Innovative systems in delivery teaching may manytimes be slightly difficult for little experienced teachers. Case studies are a relatively new theatrical role of task-based activities for railway line face students. They live been practice sessiond in terminology courses for some time now. It depends, however, that their full teaching potential has not been used yet. Teachers seem to be uncertain of how to use cases in class.The paper presents the main pedagogical aspects of victimization case studies in business English courses. It gives a fiddling description of the structure of typical mini-cases included in recently print course-books of business English. It discusses the basic principles and techniques of using the case exact method in class. The main aim of the paper is to present the advantages of the case try out method as a new joyride of developing learners linguistic and non-linguistic competence.Cases produce va luable teaching material that shoots to be fully exploited. Suggestions give(p) in teachers books cease be supplemented by mingled innovative tasks aimed at developing the productive skills of speaking and writing. Cases are prompt for business English learners since they give them the authority to decide what to do to purpose a corporeal-life business problem (learners are in the role of managers). Learners wad present their point of view, discuss its advantages and suggest a course of action.They have a chance to compete and to demonstrate their analytical and managerial skills. Doing the cases learners use language natur everyy. In the case study method language is a tool to solving a problem, it is a means of communicating in typical business situations. If teachers learn how to use cases more extensively in the future, they will certainly make the teaching process more stiff and studentcentered. 1. Introduction The effectiveness of language teaching depends, among o thers, on teaching materials.Students and teachers need materials that can improve the language acquisition process and offer more opportunities to develop the productive language skills of speaking and writing. These skills, as opposed to the capable skills of reading and listening comprehension, are more difficult to acquire and make much more practice and time. In her book on business English teaching Donna (2000) stresses the fact that if students believe that in a language course they do tasks relevant for their future professional communication, they are more motivated to learn.Case studies were first used in law to evidence verdicts given by judges and to teach law students. In the 30s of the 20th snow cases were introduced in psychiatry. Case reports were written to document diseases and to consult the cases with other specialists. Today, all medical specialties use case reports for didactic and research purposes. Case studies started to be used in business in 1967 when S trauss and Glazer created their grounded theory. In the mid-70s of the 20th century they were introduced in business schools.Harvard Business School has been using this method intensively to teach future managers how to solve real-life problems. Today, the case study method is widely used as a teaching and researching tool in medicine, psychology, anthropology, sociology, economics, management, finance and other sciences where the presentation and analysis of a real problem is of relevance in teaching and researching. The paper presents the case study method as an interesting and motivating teaching material that can be widely used in teaching business English to adult learners. 2.
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
melancholy is a universal emotion felt by ein truth i at some point or a nonher during the course of their lives. Its government issueuate drive out be very diverse and adverse, causing different lot to guess in very different ways. It is very unpredictable beca handling it is peculiar for to each one somebody, thus it is difficult to ease or even ascertain. It is attended by more other painful and confusing emotions and if non dealt with properly, it whitethorn try on to be cataclysmic. The theme of mourning is quite prevalent passim William Shakespe ares village, as virtu yety every char deeder in the play experiences it. In fact, altogether of the main characters experience this emotion to begin with the play is through. Grief has many wooings and as a result, many unwrapcomes, notwithstanding the angiotensin converting enzyme thing that remains the same is that it has a hard effect on each person it touches.Grief is sometimes taked by feelings of delinqu ency or sorrow, and in cases such as this, it take ups the sufferer by make the burden of guilt even more substantial. Oftentimes, feelings of guilty wo are intensified by placing as well much blame on oneself. For example, Ophelia, who is organism used by her possess receive and her female monarch, tries to do what she thinks is lift out to suffice her love, sm tout ensemble town. She is told that this is the right thing to do, save suffers as a result of doing it. Polonius and Claudius use her to spy on village, save when the plan miscarries, she is the one who feels intimately demoralise and wretched saying I that sucked the honey of his musicked vows (Hamlet, III, I, 169-170).Ophelia already feels bad for having to lie to Hamlet, simply this negative feeling is amplified by the fact that she completely blames herself for what happens. Al grand pianogh Polonius seems he contrivanceless in using his daughter in this situation, his grievous feelings whitethorn prove otherwise. He instructs his daughter not to see Hamlet, yet if she must not to act to his love. This is because he thinks it would be bad for his career, as the king does not uniform Hamlet. Nevertheless, Hamlet comes to her aft(prenominal) see the weirdie and truly frightens her. Being the pliant daughter that she is, she runs to her fix, and he cannot help but feel in let out responsible for not having protected her.He tells her that he was somewhat hard-pressed for her to begin with and that He is sorry that with better heed and judgment / He had not coted Hamlet. He feared did but trifle / And meant to wrack her. Alas he was wrong, Hamlet does more thantrifle, and today Ophelia is full of dread. Polonius reprimands himself for this, saying beshrew my jealousy (Hamlet, II, II, 124-126) He may not assume been able to foresee Hamlets military actions toward his daughter, but he blames himself anyway, intensifying his feelings of grief over what has happened to his da ughter. Even the seemingly heartless all have hearts no matter how evil one may seem ones conscious always manages to plague ones guilty soul and cause grief. Claudius, a man who bump off his own brother and stole his crown and wife, is a perfect deterrent example of this. Claudius in conclusion has everything he expected but he cannot fully jazz it because of the guiltiness he feels.The harlots cheek beautied with plastring art / is not more ugly to the thing that helps it / Than is his deed to his most assorted word, says Claudius in an search to explain how this lie he has built up flat weighs upon his shoulders, O heavy burden (Hamlet, III, I, 59-62) Claudius finds covering up lies and thrust them aside does not make them go away, it lonesome(prenominal) makes the angst they cause worse. Hamlet learns this lesson too, not because he is hiding a terrible secret, but because he forget not confront his begets pop uper or do what he must to exact his revenge. He thinks close it too much and in doing so pushes his courage aside. However, his feeling of culpability continues to cause him more and more grief as the situation progresses. After seeing Fortinbras leading his army to Po stain with such charisma and vigour, he wondershow stands he then, he that has a father killed, a mother stained, / And let all sleep, while to his shame he sees / The at hand(predicate) oddment of twenty thousand men / for a plot / Whereon the numbers game cannot try the cause. (Hamlet, IV, IV, 59-66)He induces so angry and ashamed of his lack of action he even goes so far as to call himself a coward. This only serves to amplify the misery he feels over the murder of his father and speedy marriage of his mother. All of these people have a author to grieve and a reason to feel accountable, but completely blaming themselves or dwelling on this remorse does nada but deepen their grief.The death of a loved one in any case causes extreme grief, but in these cases, ma nypeople look to blame another for this misfortune. In turn, one may feel that the only way to relieve the negative feelings is to explore revenge and kill the person whom one blames for them. Hamlet clearly shows a deep love for his father, and he is utterly heart-broken over his death, especially after seeing his uncle take his place. Therefore, when his fathers ghost informs him that it is a murderer, not a snake, who is responsible for his death, Hamlet immediately responds Haste me to hit the hay who, that I, with locomote a swift / As meditation or thoughts of love, / May swing over to my revenge. (Hamlet, I, V, 35-37) He does not even know whom he has to kill yet, but he is already sure that he must avenge his father, no matter the cost. Hamlet is so lost without his father, he needs somewhere to place the blame for his death. Thus, when this opportunity arises he endeavours to seize it in an attempt to avenge his father, and alleviate his own heartache as well. Fortinbr as, too, seeks revenge for his fathers death.However, unlike Hamlet, he does not have a ghost to incite him, only thirty years of hatred and anger toward the linguistic rule of Denmark. He spends his unit sustenance trying to win back the land his father lost to the Danes, take vengeance for Old Fortinbras, and regain gravitas for him and his people. When, finally, he storms the rook to assume the throne and the rights of memory he has in this kingdom, / Which now to claim his vantage doth invite him, (Hamlet, V, II, 432-433) he can finally rest. His feelings of grief can be almost completely forgotten as the keen Chain of Being is restored. The knowledge that he has retaken all that his father lost in war provides him with satisfaction and appeases his soul. However, sometimes revenge is not close the soul, in fact, certain people must completely disregard it to seek their revenge. For example, Laertes, after audition about the strange death of his father bursts into the ca stle to demand his revenge of Claudius.To hell, allegiance He vows, to the blackest devil / He dares damnation saying to the king Let come what comes, only Ill be revenged / Most throughly for my father. (Hamlet, IV, V, 149-154) Evidently, Laertes cares nothing about the consequences of his actions. His grief is so strong that he will have his revenge no matter what will happen to him as a result. In his mind, his anger and scorn over the spillage of Polonius can only be assuaged when the person responsible for his death is also dead. Like Hamlet and Fortinbras, he does not care who he kills, aslong as someone pays for this heinous crime. This shows entirely how much personal grief plays a role in their desire for revenge. All ternary men want to kill someone, but none are sure who it is that they must kill when they make the decision to become assassins. As long as the coveted result is achieved, and as long as they feel better for having killed the person they choose, everythi ng will be all right, or at least they forecast so. True evaluator is not an easy thing to find, so they will settle for their own grief relief.The emotions and thoughts that accompany grief can be extremely overwhelming. These innermost feelings of sorrow, anger, and confusion can push one to the edge of insanity and sometimes even further. After seeing the ghost of his father, and hearing that Claudius murdered him, Hamlet decides to display an antic disposition as a trap for his uncle. There are both arguments for his straightforward madness and against it, but either way the case is proved, Hamlet acts exceedingly abnormally. His sorrow drives him to act as though he is mad. According to Opheliaas she was sewing in her closet / Lord Hamlet / With a look so base in purport / As if he had been loosed out of hell / To announce of horrors he comes before her /And thrice his head thus waving up and down, / He raised a sigh so piteous and profound / As it did seem to shatter al l his bulk / And end his being. (Hamlet, II, I, 87-108)Whether Hamlet planned an antic disposition or not, he must be very shocked and bewildered by the news given to him by the ghost, and this outburst with Ophelia is clear proof of this. His woe almost triggers him to go whole mad, causing everyone around him to believe he has lost his sanity. Laertes too suffers from a brief supervising in sense after seeing what has become of his beloved baby. Ophelia does not remember who Laertes is when he returns from France, but speaks to him as though he is someone else. Laertes is astonished, he cannot believe this he lost a father while in France, and now that he is returned, he loses his sister to madness. O heat, dry up my brains Tears seven times brininess / Burn out the sense and virtue of mine eye, (Hamlet, IV, V, 177-178) he cries aloud, displaying to all present his crazed frame of mind.He is already infuriated by the circumstancessurrounding his fathers death, and now this. It takes great essay from Claudius to finally calm him down and stop his thoughts of self-destruction. Because his emotions are so overwhelming, he seems to lose the will to live, if only for a short while. Ophelia, the primary cause of Laertes near madness, also seems to lose her will to live. She loses her wits due to many reasons, mainly her fathers death at the hands of her true love. Consequently, she is completely unable to restore order to her fragile mind. She babbles and sings mindlessly, and hands out flowers that are not really in that location to the king, queen, and her brother. She is driven completely berserk with grief, so crazy that she drowns shortly afterward. As Gertrude recountsshe chanted snatches of old lauds, / As one incapable of her own distress / Till that her garments, heavy with their drink, / Pulled the brusk wretch from her melodious lay / To muddy death,(Hamlet, IV, VII, 202-208) telling her audience just how lunatic this pitiable girl is at the time of her death. Ophelia is totally destruct by the plethora of bad news she receives, so much that her sagacious mind is completely paralyzed and her psychic faculties are truly lost. These three people feel grief so deeply that their minds are gift at great risk. Pathos is created for all three, because of their innocence in these situations and their inability to control what has happened to them. They are victims, for the most part, of the malicious act going on around them, and the grief they feel because of this nearly drives each of them past their mental limits.Because grief is so overwhelming, it may cause people to do things they would not usually do. Many people act quite irrationally to a lower place griefs powerful influence. It can be so consuming that oftentimes there is no room left for logic in ones mind, so one acts without thinking. Hamlet does this in kill Polonius, who is hidden behind the arras. He stabs through the curtain before he even finds out who is concealed within it. When Gertrude questions Hamlet O me, what hast thou done? he can only reply Nay, I know not, is it the king? (Hamlet, III, IV, 31-32) because he is not really thinking when he commits this black-market crime. Hamlet is a strong-minded person and is able to control his emotions for the most part. However, the added grief of his current quarrel with his mother seems to cause a lapse injudgment which in turn makes Hamlet do something that is very grave indeed, commit murder. Laertes, too, decides that murder is not out of the question when he allows his pain to consume him.In fact, Laertes is so caught up in his pettishness and wrath that he would cut his fathers killers throat i th church (Hamlet, IV, VII, 144) something that he obviously would not do if he was thinking clearly. During the Elizabethan Era, revenge is a commonly respected notion, but to seek revenge in a church is certainly not regarded with the same esteem. Laertes would undoubtedly go to hell i f he were to go through with this foolhardy statement, something he would decide against if he were not so frenzied by grief. Horatio also becomes taken over by his anguish, watching the whole story unfold and witness its gruesome and bloody finish. Seeing his best friend wounded and dying before his eyes makes Horatio more an demode Roman than a Dane and he is about to take his own life proclaiming, heres yet some liquid left (Hamlet, V, II, 374-375).Nevertheless, Hamlet, who is finally free of his grief and now thinking clearly, takes the cup and saves his companion. When ones mind is full of grief it is very hard to think about anything else, like the good things in life or any reasons there may be to continue on living as usual. It is also difficult to foresee the consequences of ones actions, or, moreover, to care about them because grief clouds the mind so. Many things that one would typically not even be able to conceive doing become viable possibilities, when grief is equ ated into the situation. Grief has the stagger ability to cause almost anyone to perform acts that one will surely regret later, making it a very dangerous emotion.Grief affects each person differently because each person possesses their own causes for grief and their own mechanisms with which to deal with it. When one is grieving because of guilt over past mistakes or a personal loss, one most often blames themselves wholly. This makes the guilt worse, and in turn misery only grows stronger and stronger. It is a vicious cycle of remorse and repentance that is difficult to stop once it is begun. Grief is also caused by losing someone that is very dearly loved. To the griever, revenge often seems like the only way to find release from this mourning. Most find that it is not justice they seek, but refuge, from the heavy feelings of sorrow and anger, which they believe they can find in the death of theperson responsible for this grief. These feelings of regret and resentment, caused by angst, often prove to be quite overpowering and sometimes too much to bear. virtually unfortunate individuals lose their wits due to extreme emotional pain. around go further and lose their will to subsist, even further still, their lives. Grief also has the ability to fully envelop a persons mind and take away their ability to think about anything unpack for what they are feeling at the moment. It may cause the person to act in a way they are not accustomed to or to do something they would never dream of doing in any other circumstance. It can be very dangerous, in that it can cause one to do things that are absolutely irrational and devastating to oneself or others. As is show in the play, the effects of grief vary greatly, but to all whom they affect they are profoundly detrimental and destructive. Grief can cause the loss of ones mirth in life, the incitation to do something rash and ill advised, even the key to ones undoing. In all cases grief is difficult to avoid, and th erefore must be dealt with, and it is how one deals with grief that determines how ones life will be affected by it.Works CitedShakespeare, William, Hamlet, (New York Washington Square Press, 1992)
I was one of the founders of World Movers Research unassailable (WMRF). The aim of forming this class was to create employment, earn better incomes and offer consultancy run to those organizations and business entities that could not afford these services at lesser charges than the traffic pattern market price in order to help them to grow and strain their goals. The group comprised of people from diverse areas of study and we thought that this was an advantage since we would throw in the towel professionalism into the intended research firm. During forming stage, great care was taken to look into both diverse disciplines were accorded the respect they deserved.It was also expected that some of us would do lesser job than the rest but this was handled with great care to ensure that no discipline was underrated because this would create intra group conflicts. We therefore discussed the objectives in circumstance and the job expected of every group member. There was need to c ommence interim leaders who would coordinate the operations of the firm and we gave a pass off for members to volunteer as we prepare for group elections. Even though twain of our members wanted to head the organization, we managed to solve the conflict by encouraging converse amongst them.They were informed that the elections were to be conducted soon and there was no point of arguing. (Marilyn B. Cole, 2005, Pp. 20 32 Robins, S. , & Judge, T. , 2009) The most challenging part was perhaps the norming stage. There was a great need of governance and there was a very longing debate. We managed to come up with a constitution and we agreed unanimously to leg to it and amend it when necessary incase we felt that there was a deficiency. We delimit the roles of each member. We also agreed on the groups rewarding system and share of profits as well as the losses.All this was made achievable by conforming to the agreed upon rules (Marilyn B. Cole, 2005, Pp. 28 32) After acquiring an occasion and making the necessary procurements, it was time to start the work. We managed to get a amicable to review the operations of the joint loans boards in the country and make recommendations to amend them. The job was so well done that we were given the opportunity to employ the report. We found out that some of the roles needed modifications, and some of the members were not cosy with the tasks in which they were supposed to carry out. We amended the constitution and everything came back to normal.(Marilyn B. Cole, 2005, Pp. 21 32) We all had high expectations and same objectives. Everyone worked very hard to achieve his part. The constitution was also very clear and conflicts were kept as minimal as possible. The group had minimal cohesion. This was just one of the ways of avoiding the negative symptoms of groupthink. In addition, through voting, we managed to set up a good directive leadership. The group was very independent from outside influences and the groups homogeneity nature in call of ideologies and social background also suppressed negative groupthink effects.(Marilyn B. Cole, 2005, Pp. 28 38 Robins, S. , & Judge, T. , 2009) I can say that the group has been successful since it is still operating. Everyone is snug with his role in the group and we have even gone a step further to venture in investments from the income we have been able References Marilyn B. Cole, (2005). root word DYNAMICS IN OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY THE THEORETICAL BASIS AND PRACTICE applications programme OF GROUP INTERVENTION, Slack Robins, S. , & Judge, T. (2009). ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR, (13th Ed). Upper Saddle River, N. J Pearson prentice Hall.
Monday, February 25, 2019
Contents Feasibility abridgment Executive Summary . 2 occupation Plan . 5 scheme Request prospered8 Video Store . 7 pop the question Standards.. 1 Description of the Application . 12 Risk appraisal. 13 Feasibility Study. 14 Functional Requirements . 1 ornamental Requirements .. 22 Appendix A FSSD Financials . 23 Appendix B DFD 26 Appendix C ERD & Data meanspirited Relationships .. 8 Appendix D constitution analytic thinking Scheduling 31 well-fixed8 Videos arranging Feasibility Analysis Executive Summary The First State formation cultivation police squad has created the fol blueing feasibility abridgment for the Lucky8 Videos carcass shake off. The System Request is prone, along with a detailed feasibility study. The highlights of the feasibility analysis include adept Feasibility ? Competition risk high ? proficient feasibility risk low ? represent of materials risk strong suit ? muddle feasibility risk medium Economic Feasibility ? cost and benefits Developm ent disbursements include Developer salaries, server hardw atomic number 18 Operation put downs include Maintenance salaries ( improvementmen/ coder troubleshooters) Intangible benefits include Faster service, more convenient ? Values of be/Benefits Estimated Development Expense $7500 ($2500 server + $5000 broad(a) development salary) Estimated operational Expense $700 support fee Estimated Consumer-Related Expense $20,000 for for individu bothy wholeness lease box (includes imagediscs, Blue-Ray, and bouncys) 2 ?Cash Flow Year 1 $8200 Year 2 $700 + ($20,000 * X) Year 3 $700 + ($20,000 * X) Year 4 $700 + ($20,000 * X) Year N $700 + ($20,000 * X) ? shag Present Value (NPV) Cur operate Redbox Competitor System Cost $15,000 each Redbox lease unit + $7000 sell $2 $20 per DVD electronic computer Analyst Annual fee $57,202 grocery placeing Manager Annual Salary $90,000 500 1000 items in a Redbox machine $147,202 Redbox in buzz off DVD renting price $1. 20 * X Blue -ray rental price $1. 50 * X feeble rental price $2. 00 * X Lucky8 System Cost $20,000 each Lucky8 rental unit 3 Servicemen at $15,000/yr 1 System administrator at $56,000/yr $101,000Lucky8 income DVD rental price $1. 20 * X Blue-ray rental price $1. 50 * X Game rental price $2. 00 * X 3 Net Present Value = 147,202 101,000 = $46,202 c exclusively up on Investment (ROI) (147,202 101,000) / 101,000 = 0. 457 Break- pull down Point $8200 4 First State System Development championship Plan Description of FSSD A pioneer in comprehensive IT come insourcing since 2008, First State System Development (FSSD) is a full-service IT consulting and outsourcing sign for backupes in and around Wilmington, Newark, and Philadelphia.Our clients represent a crosssection of all industries and rely on FSSD for some(prenominal) different IT services. However, their requirements argon the same engineering must corroborate their calling and operate reliably. FSSD is dedicated to delivering superior , enduring solutions that ar the best fit in mingled with none and infrastructure, apply by the best certified consultants in the industry. Whatever your need is, FSSD result meet it with a liberal woof of onsite and remote IT services that are operational as pre-packaged programs or a la carte, and all under one roof.Comprehensive IT services, broad expertise, and dependable node service are just some examples of the services we offer. FSSD expands your IT capabilities and resources dramatically and ensures that engineering works for you. FSSDs comprehensive IT services outsourcing is the perfect fit for our clients. Our broad expertise expands the IT capabilities of these companies, giving them engineering science that fits their business and supports their business success and growth. Our out sourcing program includes Ne tworking, worry Application Development, web devise, Support, Preventive Care, and nyielding Customer Service. Market leaders in a wide range of i ndustries rely on FSSD services and solutions to power their most sophisticated computing environments. Theres no escaping it engineering is a necessity in todays business and critical to your business success. barely how do you find the right IT solution and make it work for you? The ingenuous news is that you dont have to be an IT expert to be in business. You dont even need an in-house IT department. solely you need is FSSD Technologies. 5FSSD occupys the worry out of IT management. Our comprehensive IT outsourcing, technology consulting, and managed IT services immediately broaden your IT capabilities, giving you the power and flexibility to dole out any aspect of your technology needs. Are you ready to make technology work for you? Take a closer look at how FSSD drive out help ? ? ? ? ? ? Outsourced IT Managed Services Software Solutions Technology Assessments Procurement send off & architecture Most companies today rely heavily on technology to storage area their busi nesses emissionning.FSSDs clients are no exception, but they do have a distinct advantage We ensure that their technology drives their business success. We find out their business, and we translate technology. Combined, our knowledge enables us to custom-builtize and deliver sound, strategic IT solutions that function as part of our clients long-term business strategy. Our financial numbers speak for themselves in order to provide you with a clear idea of t how FSSD has been exploitation in the last years. For that reason we are proud to share our relative income statement and balance sheet with you. See appendix A) 6 System Request Lucky8 Video Store Project Sponsor Prem Tandon Business postulate The goal for this figure is to increase Lucky 8 Videos market share for movie and pole rentals by spreading rental booths across the state. Business Requirements Customers of Lucky 8 Video will be able to rent or buy DVD, Blu-ray and video game discs from a carrel in their area . They will then be able to give up the rented disk to the same or a different rental kiosk. Servicemen will be able to update the inventory of available products in the machine.Sales teaching from each Lucky 8 machine will be remotely transmitted back to a central randomness carcass for analysis. severally rental kiosk will contain ? ? ? ? A touch strain interface An internal inventory of discs lineaged in cases A wireless transceiver for transactions and discipline communication A software system for processing node transactions Business Value We anticipate a wider node base because of the ease of use and convenience of using our video rental kiosks. We withal expect increased rentals at our video stores, due to the increased station recognition.Conservative estimates for the total benefits e realwhere the fox lifespan ? ? ? ? $250,000 savings from faster service $180,000 reduction in labor costs $1,138,000 increased sales $220,500 total net cash flow 7 Special Is sues or Constraints ? ? ? ? standard inventory updates will be needful to keep available movies and games recent. The database of products in the machines will also need to be updated when new releases are added to the inventory. rental kiosks locations will be limited to areas that receive wireless service. Customers will not be able to return disks to a machine that already has a full inventory.Roles and Responsibilities Name Position Description of Responsibilities Project planning Project control Project communication Resource management Internal toil reporting and administration. Andrew Shearer Project film director Oversees all aspects of the musical arrangements timberland or business improvement efforts, such as developing and administering the program, training and coaching employees, and facilitating change throughout the organization. Responsible for establishing strategic plans, policies, and procedures at all levels so quality improvement efforts will meet or pi nch internal and external customers needs and expectations. catchs basic revenue models, p/l, and cost-tocompletion calculateions and makes decisions accordingly. Understand our pricing model and billing procedures. Accurately forecasts revenue, profitability, margins, bill Alex GrierTechnical Analyst range and utilization. Assures project legal documents are completed and signed. Tracks and reports team hours and expenses on a weekly creation. Manage project budget. Determine project roles of team members establish on project requirements, timeframes and budget. When necessary work with external contractors in appendix to internal resources.Define skill sets (competencies) required for the project based on project specifications and requirements. Abram Watson Business Analyst Determine resource requirements (including plying, software, hardware, and facilities) of projects, based on project specifications. Designing the Companys Processes Business Analysis in IT Analyzing the versatile Business Models Detailed Planning 9 Business Advisors is someone who analyzes the Business Advisor organization and envision of businesses, government departments, and non-profit organizations BAs also assess business models and their integration with technology.Wilson Hsu Systems Analysis Plan a system flow from the groundwork up. Interact with customers to learn and document requirements that are then use to realise business requirements documents. Write technical requirements from a critical phase. Interact with designers to understand software limitations. Esteban Solorzano Vivar Perform system testing. Deploy the completed system. Document requirements or contribute to drug user manuals. Whenever a development process is conducted, the system analyst is accountable for designing components and providing that tuition to the developer.Database Technical Help programmers during system development, ex provide use cases, flowcharts or even Database design. 10 Proj ect Standards software documentation standards ? Project name, date created and/or modified should appear on the fade of each document. ? 1. 5 spacing should be used ? Fonts must be Arial 12pts. ? Each document created shall be kept in the project binder Coding Standards ? All variable names will have relevant names and be in headless camel case. ? All Class names will be in camel case. ? The project will use fair game oriented design patterns. The code will be split between several different classes. ? Each class will have methods to portion out the logic of the program. ? Comments will be added to all sections of code that need notwithstanding explanation. Procedural standards ? All staff will require meeting either Mondays at 1030 for the team meeting. ? A special team Meeting will be executed every first Friday on the month. ? All changes must be approved by the project manager first prior to their execution. Specification requirements standards ? Name of software packag e. ? Technical explanation of the package. Purpose of software package. ? Due date User interface design standards ? All buttons will be enlarged for use with a touchscreen. ? All text will be large generous for customers with vision impairments to see. ? A color scheme will be used thought-out the entire user interface. ? call ining to the main menu should take no more than two clicks. 11 Description of the Application The application quits customers to order through discs available in the machine. Customers are able to add movies and games to a shopping cart. The customer will be prompted to enter their zip code and email address.This information is used to send a receipt to the customer and for credit verification. The disks are then dispensed from the machine. 12 Risk Assessment Risk1 The creation and implementation of the database portion of the system may consume superfluous time resources due to the extensive amount of DVD, Blu-ray, and games in all their platforms. li keliness of risk Medium possibility of risk. Potential impact on the project This will delay the programming part by 15 25%. Ways to address this risk Our team will hire one or two part-time employees in order to enter the information to the database temporarily.The payment of this staff would be enterd by FSSD with no additive charge to the customer. 13 Feasibility Study 1. Client Information. 1. 1. History and ambit of the Organization. The organization is a fully functional video rental store by the name of Lucky 8. The business started as a family run business and has since expanded. Lucky 8 has been operational for a curt over 6 years. Within those 6 years, the business has done exceedingly well, fashioning enough profit to expand with 20 rental kiosks 1. 2. Description 1. 2. 1. The Organization. The organization is a fully functional video rental store by the name of Lucky 8.The business started as a family run business and has since expanded. Lucky 8 has been operationa l for a little over 6 years. Within those 6 years, the business has done exceedingly well, making enough profit to expand with 20 rental kiosks. 1. 2. 2. The Organizational Structure. ? The owner is considered the chief(a) manager however, the responsibilities for managing the three stores are divided among crew members. Each Lucky 8 store also has an on-site assistant manager. Cashier, stock, and sales associates are on the same hierarchy level in the organizational structure. 14 1. 3.The Client Information All communications take place with the business owner, and all information regarding the project must be discussed with him. Any changes or additions to the project must be presented to the owner for approval, and he is solely responsible for the final acceptance criteria Owner Name Prem R. Tandon Contact Details cadre Phone Number 302-555-5555 E-Mail Address For documentation emailprotected edu Client desktop Before opening Lucky 8, the owner was the regional manager of sma sh hit in the Delaware Tri-State. He has no formal education with regards to media or entrepreneurship. . The Business Problem Lucky 8 video store has been having a prevail but steady growth in recent years. However, due to the change magnitude growth of video platforms such as Netflix or OnDemand services provided by cable operators, many of the mayor video rental companies are remnant their doors. A clear example of this trend is megahit. However, not all are bad news. A new video rental system has been implemented in recent times with great success by the public. This is video rental kiosks. That is the technology strategy that Lucky 8 wants to target. 3.Proposed New System Lucky 8 video store currently has no system in place to monitor or provide the rental of DVDs, Blu-rays, or games trough kiosks. The proposed system would offer functionality in the areas of inventory management, order tracking, staff management, reporting, and real time data sharing between kiosks. A custo m designed system will be built in coffee bean for this user to meet his specific needs. Microsoft Access will be used as the organizations database. FSSD will also provide all the components in order to pee the first kiosk. The user will assume the 15 cost of spare kiosks he will require in the future.However, FSSD will provide the technical assistance to install the system in the new kiosk with no extra charge. 4. Feasibility Analysis 4. 1. Technical Feasibility 4. 1. 1. Competition risk high ? ? ? Redbox has an estimate of 33,000 kiosks across the coarse and has a well-established customer base. Redbox averages an estimate of 35,000 customers a day at their terminals. Blockbuster has been around since 1985. Blockbuster has an estimate of 10,000 rental kiosks across the country. However, Blockbuster filed for failure September 23, 2010. 4. 1. 2. Technological feasibility risk low ? The technology is already on the market there should be no doubt this is feasible. You send awa y actually get pre-made rental kiosks online. 4. 1. 3. Cost of materials risk medium ? ? The rental kiosks are estimated to cost between 15,000 and 20,000. Companies like Redbox get a little over half their inventory from producers like Warner Brothers. However, they bring in a little under half their inventory from stores like Wal-Mart. The reason Redbox has resorted to purchasing from chains like Wal-Mart is due to the fact that producers like Warner Brothers have been severe to regulate and restrict access to movies for Redbox. Due to the fact that buying merchandise from chains like Wal-Mart, KMart, or any other seller that has a large inventory is possible, getting our merchandise wont be a problem 16 4. 1. 4. Labor feasibility risk low ? For companies like Redbox who have an estimate of 33,000 kiosks their cost of maintenance and labor is very expensive and tedious. However, for a small start-up company like you the cost of maintenance wont be too high. ? ? You can actually purchase pre-made rental kiosks online. One or two servicemen will be required to keep the kiosks up to date 4. 1. 5. Location feasibility risk medium ?Since the idea of DVD rental kiosks, the locations in which theyve been placed have benefitted a great deal because of them. The kiosks bring in business for grocery stores, McDonalds, Walgreens, and many other franchises across the country. ? ? Because of the profitability of having a kiosk on your expect door step these franchises offer their space for free. The only risk is Redbox is in numerous locations and stores may be hard pressed to accept your kiosk over a renowned Redbox. 4. 2. Economic Feasibility See attached spread sheet for economic feasibility analysis. 4. 3.Organizational Feasibility It is concerned with ascertain whether the business itself has sufficient skills and resources to bring their product or service to the market table successfully. a) Three Primary Factors ? Management Expertise ? Acceptability ? Reso urces 17 b) Management Ability ? Andrew Shearer displays a management prowess that is requisite for this puzzle and is firmly dedicated to the completion of this project. ? Andrew Shearer has worked on numerous projects similar to the constitute of this with an outstanding success rate. We have no trouble appointing him as a fit candidate for this project. ) Resource Allocation ? Nonfinancial Resources ? ? ? ? ? ? Three Lucky 8 home stores. Large media collection. Well versed in media sales. realized cliental base. Available office space. Likelihood of establishing favorable strategic partnerships is high. ? Financial Resources ? ? ? legion(predicate) liquid assets. Minimum $1,000,000 budget for expansion. Steady profits. d) Acceptability. ? If we build it, will they come? ? The users of the system have already expressed a strong have-to doe with in the implementation of a kiosk come as you divert based system.The implementation of Redbox kiosks nationwide has brought mountai nous profitability to not only the business, but the proximity business owners. Why not Lucky 8? ? Very convenient for consumers who are already on their way to a local store like Wal-Mart, Walgreens, or Shop Rite. ? Our $1 rental price is much cheaper than other media rental stores. 18 ? Concerns ? If a kiosk is full you must drive to another kiosk or postponement for open availability ? ? Credit bait or debit card access is required Summary ? The advantage we have is that the idea has already been produced and yielded success, so how can we fail?The benefits of the project far outweigh the risks. If we build it they will come. 19 Lucky8 Cost Benefit Analysis 4/18/2012 2012 Benefits Faster Service Increased Convenience Increased Sales sum Benefits Development Costs 1 Server $2500 Development Salary broad(a) Development Cost Operational Costs 3 Servicemen $15,000 /yr 1 System Administrator $56,000 /yr agree Operational Cost Consumer-Related Costs 20 Rental Boxes $400,000 supply Consumer-Related Cost entireness Costs hail Benefits Total Costs Cumulative Net Cash Flow Return on Investment(ROI) Break-even Point 31. 18% 3. 32 years 013 $50,000 $45,000 $130,000 $225,000 2014 $50,000 $45,000 $161,000 $256,000 2015 $50,000 $45,000 $192,000 $287,000 2016 $50,000 $45,000 $225,000 $320,000 Total $250,000 $180,000 $708,000 $1,138,000 $2,500 $5,000 $7,500 $0. 00 $0. 00 $0. 00 $0. 00 $0. 00 $0. 00 $0. 00 $0. 00 $0. 00 $0. 00 $0. 00 $0. 00 $2,500 $5,000 $7,500 $56,000 $56,000 $45,000. 00 $56,000 $101,000 $45,000. 00 $56,000 $101,000 $45,000. 00 $56,000 $101,000 $45,000. 00 $56,000 $101,000 $180,000. 00 $280,000 $460,000 $400,000. 00 $400,000. 00 $463,500 ($463,500) ($463,500) $0. 00 $0. 00 $101,000 $124,000 ($339,500) 0. 00 $0. 00 $101,000 $155,000 ($184,500) $0. 00 $0. 00 $101,000 $186,000 $1,500 $0. 00 $0. 00 $101,000 $219,000 $220,500 $400,000 $400,000 $867,500 $270,500 20 Functional Requirements 1. Search and Browse 1. 1. The System will allow customers to browse movie/game choices by predefined categories 1. 2. The System will allow customers to depend for movie/game chooses by title, maker and genre. 1. 3. The System will allow customers to see s short sample of a movie/game selection. 1. 4. The System will enable customers to add game/movie to a favorites list. Purchase 2.Purchase 2. 1. The System will enable customers to create a customer account that will store customer data and payment information 2. 2. The System will enable customers to specify the game/DVD to rent/purchase 2. 3. The System will collect and verify payment information. in one case payment is verified the machine will eject DVD/Game 3. Promote 3. 1. The system will keep track of customer bear on on the basis of previous searches and will use this information to put forward DVDs/Games during future visits 3. 2. Marketing department can create promotions and specials on the Web site. . 3. Based on customers previous purchases, DVD/Game chooses can be targeted to the customer on future visits to the Website. 3. 4. On the basis of customer interests, customers can be notified of special offers on DVD/Games that can be purchased at a reduced rate. 21 Nonfunctional Requirements 1. Operational 1. 1. The Digital database will be constructed to facilitate searches by title, genre, publishers and series 1. 2. In the event of a failure during a transaction the customer will be able to start over. 2. Performance 2. 1.Database/transaction speeds will be monitored and kept at an acceptable operating level. 2. 2. Browsing speed should take no more then 10-20 seconds. 3. Security 3. 1. Customer information will be secured 3. 2. Payment information will be encrypted and secured. 3. 3. Customers will not have access to encrypted information(other customers previous searches and account information) 4. Cultural and political 4. 1. An additional language will be provided if necessary for Spanish speaking customers. (Espanol) 22 Appendix A FSSD Financials 23 FSSD Income Statement Year 2008 2011 Income StatementRevenue Consulting Fees Network Design Fees Software Design Fees Total Revenue Expense Advertising Cost of Goods Sold Labor Cost of Goods Sold Hardware Depretiation Income Tax Expense Insurance Interest Expense Other Expenses Payroll Expenses Profesional Expenses Rent Repairs & Maintance Salaries & proceeds Utilities Total Expenses Net Income 45,765 129,874 178,956 17,895 7,896 12,462 15,792 67,529 67,487 25,045 38,000 7,894 148,645 25,841 789,081 66,343 68,945 158,478 297,456 29,854 8,412 49,045 28,745 112,456 124,529 38,045 48,000 9,845 248,512 48,562 1,270,884 165,057 97,458 74,895 359,126 45,987 11,046 15,123 42,045 115,621 152,456 32,556 105,000 16,456 359,784 58,741 1,586,294 204,046 97,805 209,563 489,954 67,235 25,987 18,564 59,785 156,254 249,563 41,856 120,000 29,874 584,126 78,456 2,229,022 385,858 210,485 287,454 357,485 855,424 405,673 397,812 632,456 1,435,941 546,512 468,974 774,854 1,790,340 789,056 678,945 1,146,879 2,614,880 2008 2009 2010 2011 24 FSSD COMPARATIVE BALANCE SHEET eld 2008-2011Cash Accounts Receivable Notes Receivable Other Receivables Inventory Securities Total Current Assets 2008 ASSETS 53,039 192,484 882 25,363 23,539 5,000 300,307 2009 18,382 195,112 139 35,304 30,876 10,000 289,813 2010 130,442 206,395 2,965 27,143 20,158 20,000 407,103 2011 59,788 270,606 one hundred seventy-five 32,789 16,116 25,000 404,474 Fixed Assets ALLOWANCE FOR depretiation Net Fixed Assets Investment Miscelaneus Receivables Differes Charges Other Assets Total Assets 16,601 (179,370) 237,231 537,538 LIABILITIES 92,168 20,037 54,505 6,572 173,282 1,000 174,282 34,075 15,000 191,788 240,863 537,538 440,116 (212,915) 267,639 557,452 529,554 (261,915) 267,639 674,742 589,509 (320,463) 269,046 673,520 Accounts Payable Notes Payable Other Payables Accruals Total Current Liabilities Deferred Liabilities Other Liabilities Total Liabilities Profit Common Stock Retained Earnings/Surplus Total Equi ty Total Liability + Equity 88,022 22,785 39,601 2,558 152,966 3,000 155,966 15,819 15,000 201,196 232,015 516,984 47,376 27,764 34,399 34,110 243,649 4,000 247,649 80,366 15,000 260,631 355,997 674,742 106,380 25,101 83,714 15,540 230,735 10,000 240,735 57,400 15,000 309,866 382,266 673,520 25 Appendix B DFD 26 27 Appendix C Relationships ERD & Database 28 29 30 Appendix D Scheduling System Analysis 31 ID Project Name Days Start End 1-Feb 8-Feb 15-Feb 22-Feb 29-Feb 7-Mar 14-Mar 21-Mar 28-Mar 4-Apr 11-Apr 18-Apr 25-Apr 2-May 1. 0 Development memorandum Planning manakin Project Initiation Project Management 91 1-Feb 2-May 1. 1 1. . 1 1. 1. 2 27 11 16 1-Feb 1-Feb 10-Feb 28-Feb 12-Feb 26-Feb 1. 2 1. 2. 1 1. 2. 2 1. 2. 3 Analysis Phase Analysis strategy Requirements Gathering System Proposal 19 5 9 5 28-Feb 28-Feb 4-Mar 13-Mar 18-Mar 4-Mar 13-Mar 18-Mar 1. 3 1. 3. 1 1. 3. 2 1. 3. 3 1. 3. 4 Design Phase Design Strategy Architecture Design Database & File Speculations Programming Desig n 26 1 8 8 9 18-Mar 18-Mar 19-Mar 27-Mar 4-Apr 13-Apr 19-Mar 27-Mar 4-Apr 13-Apr 1. 4 1. 4. 1 Implementation System Construction 19 19 13-Apr 13-Apr 2-May 2-May 32
John Rawls is perhaps the most signifi puket sharp in philosophical ethics to have written in the quondam(prenominal) hundred years. It is nearly impossible to address ethics in present-day(a) philosophical system without saying something about John Rawls. Central to his theory of justice are the concepts of sightlyness and equality from behind what he terms a secrete of ignorance. Rawlss shroud of ignorance is a component of the way lot can construct society.He refers to an original position in which a somebody is attempting to determine a fair arrangement for society without any conceive notions or prejudices. In this original position, people are behind what Rawls calls a Veil of Ignorance and do not know where they will fall in the social hierarchy in terms of race, class, sex, disability, and other relevant factors.Rawls is a Kantian unaffixed in that he believes that principles of justice should be universalizable, and so the only way to ensure that people will cont ain fair principles of justice is to be certain that they do not know how the principles they select might affect them as individuals. A person behind the veil of ignorance does not know which side of a social contract he or she will be on, does not know his or her race, class, sex, or status in society.You can read alsoJustice scheme Position PaperA person who does not know what perks he or she will be born with (or without ) is, in Rawls view, more probable to construct a society that does not arbitrarily assign privilege based on characteristics that should have no bearing on what people get. Rawls believes that a society cannot be just without fairness and equality and believes this veil of ignorance both reveals the biases of current society and can help to prevent biases in establishing future social arrangements.Rawls is often thought of as a liberal philosopher given his position emphasizing fairness regardless of social status. His philosophy can be used to justify progr ams like affirmative challenge but has also been used by the more politically buttoned-up to argue that the American political system allows each person a fair chance and that most people would choose the American political system from behind a veil of ignorance. Source John Rawls-A possible action of Justice
Sunday, February 24, 2019
Amanda F allon Professor Jed Wolfson Anatomy and Physiology 1 October 27, 2011 Rhabdomyolysis malady of Muscular Breakdown Rhabdomyolysis is the breakdown of hurtd ponderosity tissues resolventing in the thaw of ponderousness fiber contents into the filiationstream (Patel M. D. ). This complaint come to passs when there is damage to the skeletal energy. The breakdown products of damaged sizeableityman cells, such as myoglobin, argon harmful to the kidneys and frequently result in kidney damage or thus far kidney failure. The severity of the symptoms depends on the degree of muscle damage and the degree of the kidney damage, if whatever.The aboriginal muscle damage squirt be trendd by physical damage, medications, do drugs abuse and some infections. Some perseverings whitethorn affirm a full(prenominal) risk of rhabdomyolsis because of a hereditary muscle check over that is already present. there be numerous causes of rhabdomyolysis. One of the most common causes of this disease is a crush accident, such as an auto accident. Long lasting muscle compression is also another cause of rhabdomyolysis. Long lasting muscle compression derives from lying unconscious on a hard fold up during an illness or while under the influence of drugs or alcoholic beverage (Chang M.D. ). An untrained athlete bum also get this disease from heartrending muscle strain where the muscle becomes damaged. Signifi send wordt muscle daub groundwork cause fluid and electrolyte shifts from the bloodstream into the damaged muscle cells, and in the reversion direction (eMedicineHealth). Other causes of rhabdomyolysis are electrical shock, very high proboscis temperature (hyperthermia) or waken stroke, diseases of the muscular system such as un educateed muscle enzyme deficiency or Duchennes muscular dystrophy (Chang M. D. ).Signs and symptoms of this disease may be hard to pinpoint because the course of the disease varies depending on the cause and each pa tient may bring different symptoms. Complications of this disease may also be present in the early stages as closely as in the later stages. The symptoms of rhabdomyolysis come from the medical history of the patient. The patient may experience painful swollen bruised or tender areas of the body. brawniness weakness may also be experienced by the patient, such as difficulty moving the arms or the legs.Nausea, vomiting and a general sense of illness can be experienced by the patient. The rise in body temperature (hyperthermia) may cause confusion, dehydration, and even a lack of consciousness if not enured. The signs of rhabdomyolysis come from the physical findings of an examination do by a doctor or a healthcare provider. slight severe forms of rhabdomyolysis may not cause any symptoms or signs, and the diagnosing can only be found in abnormal blood tests. The urine, as seen in the photo to the right, may be dark, a lot exposit as tea-colored, due to the presence of myoglob in in the urine.Damage to the kidneys can occur due to decreased or absent urine production, usually 12 to 24 hours after the initial muscle damage (Patel M. D. ). A moment recognized complication is disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), a severe disruption in blood clotting that may submit to uncontrollable bleeding ( warren M. D. ). vigor biopsies can be useful if an episode of rhabdomyolysis is thought to be the result of an underlying muscle disorder. A biopsy sample taken during an episode is often uninformative, as it will show only evidence of cell shoemakers last or may appear normal (eMedicineHealth).Taking the sample can be delayed for several weeks or even months. The histopathological appearance on the biopsy indicates the nature of the underlying disorder (eMedicineHealth). Biopsy sites may be identified by medical vision, such as using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as the muscles may not be equally partakeed by this disease. Early laboratory findings include increased levels of myoglobin, potassium, urea, and phosphorus found in blood levels. An anion gap metabolic acidosis could progress because of release of acids from damaged muscle tissue (Patel M. D. ).Myoglobin testing would be the best indication and the diagnostic instauration because an increase of myoglobin usually will not occur in the absence of rhabdomyolysis. Diagnostic tests for urine myoglobin are often not easily available, and it may take more than 24 hours for the physician to get the results of the test. However, a typic urine screening for rhabdomyolysis may be performed as long as the urine sediment is examined as well. Complications of rhabdomyolysis also include disseminated intravascular coagulation, a condition that occurs when small blood clots begin forming in the bodys blood vessels (eMedicineHealth).These clots ingest all the clotting factors and platelets in the body, and bleeding begins suddenly. When muscles are damaged swelling at bottom th e muscle can occur, causing what is called compartment syndrome. If this occurs in an area where the muscle is bank by fascia, a tough fibrous tissue, the pressure inside the muscle compartment can increase to the point at which blood supply to the muscle is compromised and muscle cells begin to die. Rhabdomyolysis is treatable and patients may recover quickly if the disease is caught in the early stages.The main goal of treatment is to prevent kidney damage or to prevent any further kidney damage. However, if left untreated, acute kidney failure develops in 30-40% of patients (Ritz). Early and aggressive hydration may prevent difficulties from this disease by apace removing the myoglobin from the kidneys. Hydration of the body may include using several liters of intravenous fluids until the condition is stabilized. Diuretics can also help with removing the iron-containing pigment out of the kidneys.If the patient produces an welcome amount of urine a doctor may administer bicarb onate, which can prevent the myoglobin from breaking down into toxic compounds within the kidney (Warren M. D. ). Kidney failure occurs when the kidneys are not able to filter and process waste from the body. If the disease progresses lavish and kidney failure occurs then the patient may have to undergo dialysis. Dialysis is a procedure that takes the blood out of the body and sends it into a machine, as seen in the picture to the left. The machine filters the waste products from the blood.In severe cases of kidney or renal failure a kidney transplant may be required. If the case of rhabdomyolysis is flabby it can be treated at home. The home treatment would include lots of rest and sufficient hydration by drinking plenty of fluids. The overall prognosis of rhabdomyolysis is pretty good as long as it is diagnosed and treated promptly. If the instance of this disease is not severe then the patient may only have to be in the hospital for a concisely time period for rehydration wit h IV fluids and lots of rest so the muscles can recover.Acute kidney failure occurs in many of the patients. Rhabdomyolysis is the cause for as many as 15% of patients with kidney failure (eMedicineHealth). While the mortality rate for this disease is approximately 5% (eMedicineHealth). The risk of death caused by this disease depends in the main on the primary health of the patient, the amount of muscle damage that has been caused and any other associated injuries. If kidney failure occurs, the mortality rate can increase to 20% (eMedicineHealth).Rhabdomyolysis can be prevented in almost all cases. Exercise programs and routines necessitate to be thoughtfully planned to prevent any kind of injury and to lower the risk of getting rhabdomyolysis. This includes avoiding exercising in extreme heat conditions and drinking a sufficient amount of fluids. Both these situations can lead to dehydration, which increases the risk of muscle damage. Also, the risk of rhabdomyolysis exists high ly for patients taking statin and fibrate medications for high cholesterol control.Information is often provided to these patients to be aware of the symptoms of this disease and the culture should be read carefully and thoroughly. In conclusion, this is a disease of the muscular system that could affect anyone in their lifetime. This disease is more common than what I had originally thought. Although it is easily treatable, it can be a very dangerous and painful disease. I am glad that I researched rhabdomyolysis because I have versed what can happen and what to do if I ever experience any of the symptoms. I have also learned the consequences of not schooling properly for exercise.In doing this research paper I have learned about a disease that I may see affect people in my career as a physical therapist. Bibliography Chang M. D. , Louise. WebMD. 13 September 2010. 22 October 2011 . eMedicineHealth. Rhabdomyolysis (Cont. ). 2011. 30 October 2011 . Patel M. D. , Parul. U. S. Nati onal Library of Medicine. 13 shocking 2009. 21 October 2011 . Ritz, Eberhard. Disease of the Month Rhabdmyolysis. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (2000) 1553-1561. Warren M. D. , JD. Rhabdomyolysis a review. Muscle and Nerve (2002) 32-47.
RUGM_C05. QXD 8/18/08 416 PM rapsc all in allion 129 Chapter 5 I NTERNATIONAL enculturation Contents Objectives of the chapter foot 131 Places and lot differ. The japanese tend to be precise polite, the Australians char stand foreristically muffle. bolshie expression danger or stop to the British, but in joker it signifies death and in chinaw be, good fortune. In France getting into a grande ecole tends to endorsement good calling prospects whereas in Saudi Arabia the wealth and status of your family is remote to a greater extent important. What is flori nicety? 131 The importance of gardening in distinguishable pedigree contexts 133National stereotypes and cay dimensions of civilisation 136 Cross- hea jibelyish centering 144 glossiness in bodiedd in landing field institutions 151 Active Learning slip-up Culture clashing at Pharmacia and Upjohn 130 demesne(prenominal) chore line Strategy in fulfil McDonalds 135 Dan unmatched and Parmalatgoing inter home(a)ist, staying topical anaesthetic anesthetic 149 Real Cases Do non th trend your meishi 154 Sport corporation be local and global Manchester fall in 155 Patterns of global potpourri and the implications of these diversions select been studied from a put of perspectives, by sociologists, psychologists, anthropologists, and political scientists.Here we atomic number 18 concerned with how ethnical diversity and connect differences in the fashion, norms, and expectations of particular chemical groups of employees, theater be make believeors, colleagues, or customers affect prudence finale do and merged organizations. After an introduction to the kinds of business contexts in which ethnical differences do matter, this chapter pass on describe al around typologies of home(a) ethnic differences and discuss the implications of these for international managers. The unique(predicate) objectives of this chapter ar to 1 Define gloss and explain the occurrenc eors that underlie ethnical differences. Show where and why heathenish differences matter to international managers. 3 Explain a physique of frame lends that help key important cultural differences. 4 Examine how firms asshole anticipate and cope with cultural differences. RUGM_C05. QXD 8/18/08 152 PM varlet 130 c return TWO THE milieu OF multinational crinkle Active Learning Case Culture clash at Pharmacia and Upjohn Despite being part of the kindred advanced, industrialized world, Kalamazoo (Michigan, united States), Stockholm (Sweden), and Milan (Italy) ar worlds apart in umteen important shipway. Senior managers ternioning the jointure amongst devil pharmaceutical firms, Upjohn Comp either of he fall in States and Pharmacia AB of Sweden (with operations in Italy), came to wee how meaning(a) these differences were subsequently the merger excessivelyk model in 1995. Swedes take clear up- underlying to the nobleest degree of the month of July for their a nnual vacation, Italians take off puff up-nigh of August. not knowing this, US executives scheduled meetings in the summer only to pee-pee to potbellycel many because their European counterparts were at the beach. As the to a greater extent controlling US firm began to impose its way of doing things on the unseasoned-fashi whizdly acquired European organizations, international relationships became increasingly strained. Neither the Swedes nor the Italians were happy with mpositions such as the do drugs and alcohol testing policy brought in by Upjohn, or the say-so smoking ban. These clashed with local slipway of doing things and the a good deal than unceremonious take a leak milieu that these cultures prefer. Although Upjohn later relaxed many of these bailiwick rules, allowing roughly local practices and tastings to prevail, ill-feeling and a pointedness of resistance had already developed among European colleagues. The additional bureaucracy and the command-and control panache imposed by the the Statesns created more(prenominal) significant problems for the 34,000 employees and managers in Pharmacia and Upjohn Company. The Swedes ere utilise to an open, group-based vogue of management where responsibilities argon devolved managers ar leaveed and not strictly monitored or c regressly managed. Swedish executives overly tend to build up a consensus behind big decisions, getting every ace in the same boat (alla aer i baten) rather than handing armys down the hierarchy. As a tralatitious US multinational, however, Upjohn was more used to tough attractorship and a centralized command-andcontrol structure. Its CEO, Dr. John Zabriskie, cursorily created a strict reporting system, tight budget control, and frequent staffing updates, which clashed with the Swedish rganization style. Swedish managers would leave meetings disgruntled, having been overruled by US executives keen to push their stack of the unified bon ton. The Swedes ow n ship canal of doing things had already clashed with the Italian style of management, chase the takeover of Farmitalia (part of Montedison) by Pharmacia in 1993. Italians be used to a distinctive division between players (and their hale unions) and managers. Their 130 steeper hierarchies melodic phrase the more egalitarian Swedes. Italians besides note a racy nourish on families and leave alone leave ork to tend to sick sexual relations or help with childc be, which the Swedes let down upon. The addition of the Americans from Upjohn to this mix created further cultural confusion. conversation problems, beyond the self-evident language differences, became a real barrier to honest dialogue. You go at that place thinking youre going to streamline the place, said American account H. Corrigan, Pharmacia and Upjohn Vice President for clinical Development, and you leave unspoilt having added five pounds from few wonderful meals. These differences, many of them small bu t important at the local level, quickly began to remove an impact on the verall execution of the merged company. In the months and age following the merger unfore befooln inefficiencies and added follows began to undermine the capableness synergies of bringing together cardinal such companies in the first place. At one level the problems amounted to things like canceled meetings, new organization demands (such as periodic report theme), and a world(a) decline in staff morale. there were too un pass judgment difficulties integrating the IT systems across the various parts of the merged organization. These and divers(prenominal) assortments added an estimated $200 one million million million to the predicted costs of the estructuring, taking the total cost to $800 million. Even more seriously, for a pharmaceutical company heavily dependent on its new drugs pipeline to survive, slow up product launches and the loss of key staff (including the gaffer of R&D at Pharmacia ) had a long-acting-term impact. thither was probably an under-appreciation of these cultural differences, says Art Atkinson, reason Vice President for Clinical Research and Development. Particular problems resulted from the restructuring of the firms global R&D structure. Prior to the merger Upjohn own s wholesome-known names such as Rogaine andMotrin and had annual sales of around $3. 5 billion, but had a dim new product pipeline and slow sales ripening comp atomic number 18d to its bigger competitors. Similar-sized Pharmacia had a more promising pipeline but weak distribution and sales in the US merchandise, the worlds whackingst. These amounted to a pixilated rationale for the merger. Together they could contest the financial top executive and the larger R&D programs of their competitors. However, integrating and re reduceing the various parts of the new R&D structure became a study problem. Rather than place the R&D headquarters in the unite States, Sweden, or Mila n, a ecision was made to establish a new and neutral Londonbased center for the R&D function. This just now added a RUGM_C05. QXD 8/18/08 416 PM Page 131 CHAPTER 5 external kitchen-gardening layer of management and a more complex matrix reporting structure, which further modify key R&D personnel. In 1997, after the stock impairment of the merged corporation had fallen significantly, CEO John Zabriskie resigned. Swede Jan Ekberg, the former head of Pharmacia, took over temporarily and began to rebuild aspects of the merged organization. After acquiring a major(ip) part of Monsanto in 2000, Pharmacia and Upjohn became Pharmacia, which was hen itself acquired by the US giant Pfizer in April 2003. This made Pfizer, tally to its own Annual Report, the number one pharmaceutical company in every region of the World. 11 All this proves is that going global is hard turn. Not all of these problems could take on been foreseen, but a real lack of certainness of cultural differences di d lead to many of the organization difficulties and pack problems with a real impact on the bottom line. Websites www. accenture. com/xdoc/en/ideas/out tactile sensation/1. 2000/maa2. pdf www. pfizer. com www. pfizer. com/are/investors_reports/annual_2003/ re find/index. htm. computer addresss R. Frank and T. M. Burton, Pharmacia & Upjohn Faces Culture Clash Europeans Chafe Under US Rules, Wall Street Journal, February 4, 1997 R. J. Thomas, inconsistent Differences, Accenture Outlook, vol. 1, 2000 and Pfizer, Annual Report, 2003. What kinds of cultural differences matter when organizations from different countries merge? 2 How wholesome do the characteristics described in the case match the respective, stereotypical national cultures of these countries? 3 What could precedential managers cave in done before and after the merger to alleviate some of the problems that resulted from culture clash? Explain why one organization might want to impose some of its ways of doing things o n an other(a)(a), such as an acquired firm or subsidiary. INTRODUCTION The number of workers assiduous by unusual-owned companies has grown significantly over the past 20 years as a result of the expanding activities of foreign affiliates of MNEs around the world. For many population, ii employers and employees, this has brought home the realities of globalization. An estimated 73 million hoi polloi globally (including 24 million in China) now work for foreign companies, nearly three multiplication the number in 1990.Companies such as Motorola, ecumenical Motors, British Petroleum, and General Electric are among the largest private-sector employers in economies such as Malaysia and Singapore. 1 This exploitation multicultural workforce, part of the increasingly global patterns of exchange and fundamental interaction discussed before in this book, gear ups it more and more important to understand how peoples preferences, judgements, and set differ. Understanding intern ational cultural differences allows us to be aware of and adapt to the differences that matter for managers. WHAT IS goal? SocializationThe process of enculturation, or the adoption of the demeanour patterns of the surrounding culture Culture can be defined as the sum total of the beliefs, rules, techniques, institutions, and artifacts that characterize human populations2 or the corporal programming of the mind. 3 Sociologists everydayly talk about the brotherlyization process, referring to the invite of parents, friends, education, and the interaction with other members of a particular friendship as the seat for ones culture. These influences result in learned patterns of way cat valium to members of a given society.As you can see, explanations of culture spay consort to the focus of interest, the unit of analysis, and the disciplinary approach (psychology, anthropology, sociology, geography, etc. ). 131 RUGM_C05. QXD 8/18/08 416 PM Page 132 helping TWO THE ENVIRONMEN T OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS accede 5. 1 World population percentages in ground of home region, language, and religion Home region Asia Africa Europe Latin America Former Soviet bloc North America Australia and unseasoned Zealand % 58. 4 12. 4 9. 5 8. 4 5. 5 5. 2 0. 6 language % Mandarin 14. 4 Hindi 6. 0 English 5. 6 Spanish 5. 6 Bengali 3. 4 Russian 2. 8 Portuguese 2. 6 Nipponese 2. 0German 1. 6 Korean 1. 3 French 1. 3 other(a) 54. 4 (approx. 200) Religion Christianity, including Catholics Protestants Orthodox Islam Hinduism Non-religious Buddhism Chinese traditional Primal indigenous Other % 33 20 9 4 22 15 14 6 4 3 3 Sources www. census. gov www. adherents. com. Corporate culture The characterd values, traditions, customs, philosophy, and policies of a corporation likewise, the professional atmosphere that grows from this and affects sort and feat 132 This is significant in that studies of cultural differences adopt a specific definition and dress out of mensurable crit eria, which are always debatable.Research into culture and its impact in business and management studies is passing contentious and should not just be taken at face value, including the studies described below. There is a strong consensus, however, that key elements of culture include language, religion, values, attitudes, customs, and norms of a group or society. Table 5. 1 shows how the worlds population is divided according to geography, language, and religion. actors line is perhaps the more or less important key to savvy culture in world(a) and the specific values, beliefs, attitudes, and opinions of a particular idiosyncratic or group.English is astray certain as the language of business many global institutions and companies eat up adopted English as their official language. For many firms, such as Toyota, NEC, Hitachi, and IBM japan, English-speaking force is a prerequisite for promotion. 4 However, any confidence that speaking the same language removes cultural d ifferences is dangerousit normally just hides them. more(prenominal)over, a reliance on English by British and American managers, and a lack of other language skills, can weaken their ability to empathize with and adapt to other cultures.Religion, connectered to both regional characteristics and language, likewise influences business culture by a ring of shared magnetic core values. Protestants hold strong beliefs about the value of delayed gratification, saving, and investment. The sociologist Max weber, writing in 1904, saw this Protestant work ethic as the look of capitalism during the Industrial Revolution. 5 Rather than spending, consuming, and savouring life now, their religious beliefs prompted the Protestants to look to longer-term rewards (including those in the after-life).There are parallels with the Confucian and Shinto work ethics, which overly view spiritual rewards as tied to hard work and commitment to the fruits of indus accent. incompatible this, a more s toic attitude among some African populations part explains their borrowing of the ways things are, because it is the lead of God (shauri ya Mungu). At the close general level culture can refer simply to the lifestyle and mien of a given group of people, so bodied culture is a term used to characterize how the managers and employees of particular companies tend to behave.But the term is withal used by human resource managers and ranking(prenominal) management in their attempts to proactively shape the kind of behavior (innovative, open, dynamic, etc. ) they hope to nurture in their organizations. Promoting a distinctive corporate culture is also expected to enkindle the sense of community and shared identity that underpins effective organizations. RUGM_C05. QXD 8/18/08 152 PM Page 133 CHAPTER 5 INTERNATIONAL CULTURE THE IMPORTANCE OF CULTURE IN DIFFERENT BUSINESS CONTEXTS Cross-cultural management issues explicate in a range of business contexts.Within person firms, for ex ample, managers from a foreign parent company ingest to understand that local employees from the emcee country whitethorn require different organization structures and HRM procedures. In cross-b put together mergers and acquisitions (M&As), realizing the expected synergies very very much depends on establishing structures and procedures that encompass both cultures in a matchd way. Cross-border joint ventures, alliances, or buyersupplier relationships between two or more firms also require a cultural compromise.Finally, for firms to distribute triple-crownly to foreign customers requires culturally sensitive adaptations to products, serfeeblenesss, trade, and advertising. send off 5. 1 outlines, at the most general level, links between business contexts and particular characteristics of somebodys or groups that are influenced by well-disposed and cultural norms of a particular region. At the face-to-face level in meetings the language and behavior of different peoples alte r and their mutual reasonableness of each others culture will influence the effectiveness and efficiency of communication between them.This influences how wholesome multicultural employments operate at all levels, from strategy setting at the aged level to plant-floor operations. Firms also tend to have different organizational and decision-making practices depending on where they have evolved and which cultures and subcultures they encompass. For firms to build successful alliances and partnerships, or for M&A activities to practise at the company-to-company level, there needs to be an understanding of the organizational look 5. 1 Cross-cultural business contexts 133 RUGM_C05. QXD 8/18/08 152 PM Page 134 PART TWO THE ENVIRONMENT OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESSEthnocentrism The belief that ones own way of doing things is superior to that of others. differences between them. This covers often every element of corporate organizations from decision-making structures and systems and m anagementlabor relationships to case-by-case employees attitudes toward their work and their employer. Finally, culture influences the behavior and preferences of clients and customers. To sell successfully in a foreign market, a manager needs to adapt his or her product or service to meet the different needs of that particular group of customers.Any renewing in advertising, marketing, product or service features, after-sales support, technical back-up, documentation, etc. , will be partly guided by cultural differences. Failure to do this ends in the kinds of marketing mistakes and communication blunders that be set about marketing folklore. For example, Fords low-cost truck was initially marketed as the Feira to Spanish-speaking people, but this mover ugly old fair sex in Spanish. The Ford Comet, a high-end car, was exchange as the Caliente in Mexico, which is local slang for prostitute. Unsurprisingly neither model did well in these markets. This reinforces the above point a bout the importance of language, but also demonstrates how some of the largest and most watchd companies do not appear to do the most basic cultural due diligence (their homework ) when instauration products and work in foreign markets. The chapter on marketing strategy in this book examines these kinds of issues more closely. Across all of the business contexts in var. 5. 1 ignorance of cultural differences represents a common stumbling block for international managers.Ethnocentrism, the belief that ones own way of doing things is superior to that of others, can also be a major barrier to good international management. The take exception lies in recognizing differences, combining the favours that stem from different styles and approaches, adjusting and adapting to succeed with different people, in different partnerships, and in different markets. ? Active learning kerb follow your answer to Active Learning Case question 1 and make any changes you like. Then compare your ans wer to the one below. 1 What kinds of cultural differences matter when organizations from different countries merge?The definition of culture itself gives some indicators of the kinds of differences that matter. placements from different countries will have developed different beliefs, values, and patterns of behavior based on their underlying national culture. A grand range of differences could be important, including attitudes toward work and workplace practices, managementlabor relations, the decision-making hierarchy, and division of responsibilities. Cross-border M&A often also requires changes to the marketing and branding of products and services as sales are expanded into new markets.Differences in the language, values, and preferences of customers in different countries also need to be taken into account. Culture has always been important Cultural overlap The growing similarity between national cultures, including the beliefs, values, aspirations, and the preferences of c onsumers, partly driven by global brands, media, and common global icons 134 Despite the various patterns and processes of globalization, cultural differences tranquillize remain important. Even with greater common access, via various media and the Internet, to the same brands, joggle icons, and sports stars, differences remain.Terms like cultural convergence or, simply, Americanization (the homogenization of global consumer preferences through the omnipresence of McDonalds, Coca-Cola, and Ford) overstate the similarities between groups of people around the world. (See the case external Business Strategy in Action McDonalds. ) RUGM_C05. QXD 8/18/08 152 PM Page 135 CHAPTER 5 INTERNATIONAL CULTURE multinational Business Strategy in Action McDonalds When Jose Bove, a self-proclaimed leader of Frances antiglobalization movement, was sentenced for vandalizing a McDonalds restaurant in 1999, he claimed to have the backing of the French people.That might have been an overstatement, but 40,000 French people were there to show their support. It was not only the French, however in the mid-nineties McDonalds restaurants were vandalized in about 50 countries. At issue is the ecumenical perception that McDonalds represents a particular friendly Ronald-McDonald-type of US imperialism. tralatitious lifestyles, critics say, are being eroded by McDonalds marketing practices, its value chain system, its fast-food concept, and the unhealthy food itself. Yet, McDonalds bends over backward to blend into local cultures. The company advertises itself to its critics as a lobal company owned and run by local people. Indeed, the franchise system makes it so that McDonalds Japan is run by the Japanese and Israels McDonalds restaurants are run by Israelis. Local business owners choose their menus offerings to fit their culture, find alternative suppliers, and create suitable marketing for their culture. An American in Saudi Arabia might seat single men with families at a McDonalds opening, but a Saudi Arabian owner would know that this is unacceptable and the restaurant will be designed to pacify the culture. In the land of Jose Bove, Asterix, a French comic-strip haracter who stands for psycheistity and ironically symbolizes local resistance to imperial forces, replaced the goofy Ronald McDonald in the companys marketing in the early 2000s. In 1999, French McDonalds went the extra cubic cen condemnationtre to prove how local it was by printing advertisements making fun of US eating habits. In one ad, a large American cowman complains that McDonalds France does not import American call to guarantee maximum hygienic conditions. French restaurants are more fashionably and more comfortably designed than North American ones to create an environment where customers may enjoy longer meals n accordance with French tradition. If they want, customers can order a beer from the menu. In India, where local tastes are very different from those in the unify Stat es, the company crafted an entirely different menu that does not use beef or pork due to the mostly vegetarian population. The Indian Big mack is made of lamb. In Israel, the locally owned McDonalds purchases over 80 percent of its ingredients from local producers, including 100 percent kosher hamburger meat, potatoes, lettuce, buns, and handshake mix. There are no cheeseburgers in Israels McDonalds because dairy products cannot be eaten together with meat.On the other hand, McDonalds does bring its own culture to its foreign operations. In China, where childrens birthdays are not traditionally celebrated, a successful McDonalds marketing strategy encouraged birthday parties at their establishments. Not a bad deal for children, but still a cultural effect from a foreign multinational. More mundane things, such as combo meals, are popularized through McDonalds expansion. By promoting its carbonate beverages in India, the firm is unsettling the countrys tea culture. The companys pre sence creates a cultural exchange, not a one-sided cultural takeover.Beyond reactionary behavior against McDonalds cultural impositions, McDonalds has had to suffer simply for being born in the join States. Just hours after the United States began bombing Afghanistan in 2001 McDonalds restaurants were vandalized in cities in Pakistan and Indonesia and Muslim clerics asked for the ostracise of US products. For activists and cultural protectors, the most frustrating thing is that their calls go unheeded. Owners of McDonalds franchises continuously remind customers that they too are locals, that their employees are locals, and that their suppliers are principally local.In Brazil, some anti-war protestors on their way home will stop at a McDonalds for a bite to eat. Some of McDonalds major troubles, however, are in its most established markets in the United States, Canada, and the UK. Russian and Chinese go-getters might think that a meal in McDonalds puts them in a class above, but in its two major markets of North America and Europe, where the firm derives over two-thirds of all r nonetheless(prenominal)ue, the food is considered unhealthy. Indeed, both Canada and the UK considered imposing a tax on fatty foods on the cause that it was damaging to peoples health and it osts the health-care system a warm amount. The tax is unlikely to be imposed because of a strong occur from poverty groups who argue that this tax would place an un in sequence burden on those who depend on cheap food for their everyday survival. In the United States, the firm is being sued over claims that it misled parents about the nutritional value of its products, jumper lead their children to become obese and unhealthy. McDonalds in the UK reacted by eliminating supersized options from the menu. A set of healthier options has now been introduced inEurope and North America as the company fends off critics in some of its friendliest markets. Sources David Barboza, When Golden Arches Ar e Too Red, White and Blue, raw(a) York Times, October 14, 2001 Tony Karon, Adieu, Ronald McDonald, Time. com, January 24, 2002 Simon Romero, War and Abuse Do Little to Harm US Brands, New York Times, May 9, 2004. 135 RUGM_C05. QXD 8/18/08 152 PM Page 136 PART TWO THE ENVIRONMENT OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS Cultures vary and these variations lead to real and significant differences in the ways that companies operate and people work.Moreover, because of globalization more and more firms are coming head to head with the added complexity of doing business globally, which stems from the huge amount of variety in the world that still exists (and arguably will always exist). Before moving on to examine some typologies of global cultures, here is a word of warning. overmuch of this section will describe how various kinds of individual and group behavior can be linked to specific cultural groups and associate these cultural dispositions with different business styles and company structures.A cting on the foothold of cultural stereotypes is highly sensitive and can be problematic. For example, at the simplest level a banker may be able to prove empirically that Pakistanis are more successful than Jamaicans at beginning and running small businesses around the world. Using this discernment as the basis for discriminating against Jamaicans wanting bank loans for business start-ups is not only unethical, but in most countries falls foul of extend discrimination laws. NATIONAL STEREOTYPES AND KEY DIMENSIONS OF CULTURE Culture at two levelsThere are traditionally two different approaches to looking at culture Psychic infinite The psychic or psychological level, which focuses on the internalized norms, attitudes, and behavior of individuals from a particular culture (psychic outdistance is a measure of differences between groups). A measure of the similarity or difference between two cultures also commonly The institutional level, which looks at national (or group) cult ure bodied in defined as the measurable institutions (government, education, and economic institutions as well as in business distance between the home rganizations). market and a foreign market resulting from the perception In this chapter we will primarily discuss the first, culture as shared psychology, with a brief of cultural and business differences reference to national institutional differences at the end. People who are born in, or grew up in, the same country tend to share similar cultural characteristics. Nordstrom and Valhne examined a sample of Swedish firms to understand the cause of psychic distance on market-entry strategies and costs. They ranked 20 particular countries according to a range of national characteristics that contribute to psychic distance and found, as you might expect, that Denmark is closest to Sweden (1/20), the UK comes in at 6/20, Portugal at 15/20, Japan 16/20, Brazil 17/20 and Australia 20/20. Nationality and culture tend to coincide, althoug h nations encompass a wide variety of institutions, religions, beliefs, and patterns of behavior, and distinctive subcultures can always be found at heart individual countries. The only way to make sense of this wide diversity is to characterize distinct cultural groups through simplified national stereotypes.Many studies have attempted to create these stereotypes by mapping and comparing the shared characteristics of managers and employees in different countries. 7 Researchers then examine the effects of key differences on business behavior, organization, structure, and ultimately the performance of companies from different countries. The following describes the milestone studies of this kind in the management field. Hofstedes four dimensions of culture Geert Hofstede is a Dutch psychologist who conducted one of the earliest and known cultural studies in management, on IBMs operations in 70 countries around the world. 136 RUGM_C05. QXD 8/18/08 152 PM Page 137 individualism index CHAPTER 5 INTERNATIONAL CULTURE Power distance index examine 5. 2 Hofstedes spot distance against individuality for 20 countries Source Hofstede, G. (1983). The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories, Journal of International Business Studies, Fall, p. 92. Copy aright Geert Hofstede. Getting answers to 32 statements from over 116,000 questionnaires, he mapped key cultural characteristics of these countries according to four value dimensions Power distance A cultural dimension that measures the degree to hich less(prenominal) powerful members of organizations and institutions accept the fact that power is not distributed equally misgiving dodging The extent to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situations and have created institutions and beliefs for minimizing or avoiding those uncertainties Individualism The end of people to look after themselves and their immediate family only maleness The degree to which the dominant values of a society are su ccess, money, and substantial things 1 Power distance is the extent to which a culture accepts that power in organizations is distributed unequally.High power distance equates with steep organizational hierarchies, with more unequivocal leading and less employee intimacy in decision making (see Figure 5. 2 for examples). 2 Uncertainty avoidance is the degree to which members of a society feel uncomfortable with risk and uncertainty. High uncertainty avoidance (Japan, Argentina, France) will be reflected in the high priority placed on rituals, routines, and procedures in organizations and society in general. Countries with low uncertainty avoidance (Denmark, UK, India, US) tend to mark flexibility and in positiveity rather than bureaucracy. Individualism is the extent to which people are supposed to take care of themselves and be stimulatedly independent from others (see Figure 5. 2 for examples). 4 Masculinity is the value attributed to achievement, assertiveness, and material success (Japan, Mexico, Germany, UK) as opposed to the stereotypical feminine values of relationships, modesty, caring, and the quality of life (Sweden, Netherlands, Denmark), according to Hofstede. Figure 5. 2 illustrates some of Hofstedes findings using two of the most useful dimensions, power distance against the degree of individualism/collectivism.It reflects some general stereotypes of the countries included, with clear grouping of Australia, UK and US as highly individualistic and less vertical (small power distance) cultures against Mexico, Thailand, and Panama at the other extreme. We will riotous on these definitions and their practical interpretation throughout this chapter. Among his most important contributions, Hofstede provided strong evidence for the significance of national culture over professional role, gender, or race, as a determinant of variation in employees attitudes, values, and behaviors, accounting for 50 percent of the 137 RUGM_C05. QXD 8/18/08 52 PM P age 138 PART TWO THE ENVIRONMENT OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS differences his study observed. However, his studies have come in for significant criticism, despite widespread adoption of the four-dimensional framework. one-third common criticisms are (1) that the dimensions developed from data collected between 1968 and 1973 were relevant only for that particular period (2) that corporate cultural and other influences from this one-organization (IBM) study created significant bias (3) that the sole use of attitude-survey questionnaires was not a validated basis for the resulting values and dimensions his study concluded with. Although Hofstede has continued to write on culture, organizations, and management10 it is useful to look more deeply into the work of another known Dutch culture guru. Trompenaars seven dimensions of culture Universalism The uniform application of rules and procedures, regardless of situation, context, or individuals involved Particularism Judging a situation and adjusting rules and procedures according to the specific situation or individuals involved Collectivism The tendency of people to proceed to groups who look after each other in xchange for loyalty sluggish A preference for un aroused, objective analysis of a situation or a decision and for limited displays of emotions and feelings in the workplace Emotional An acceptance of emotion and subjectivity as the bases for some decision making and a preference for definitive displays of emotions and feelings in the workplace Specific A tendency to limit workplace relationships and obligations, including relative status and hierarchical position, to the workplace give out A tendency for workplace relationships and obligations, including relative tatus and hierarchical position, to extend into social situations and activities outside of work 138 Fons Trompenaars built on Hofstedes work by expanding the framework for stereotyping and comparing different national cultures and by focusi ng more on the management implications of cultural differences. Using initial look into involving 15,000 employees in 50 countries, Trompenaars explored the cultural extremes and the incomprehension that can arise when doing business across cultures, even when people are working for the same company. 1 Trompenaars arrived at seven distinctive dimensions of culture and used the questionnaire responses in his study to map a wide variety of countries along a continuum from one extreme to the other within each dimension. The key to understanding this mapping approach is to identify where each country or culture is positioned relative to others on one or more of these dimensions. Relative positioning gives insights into the kinds of conflicts, misunderstandings, and organizational and management problems that are likely to arise when individuals, groups, or firms from these countries interact in any of the ways described above. Universalism versus particularism. In universalistic cultur es rules and regulations are applied in all situations, regardless of particular conditions or circumstances. The example used by Trompenaars refers to a salesman who does not fulfill his monthly sales quota because he was looking after his sick son. Should he be penalized according to standard company regulations or should he be excused because of the particular circumstances? According to Trompenaars findings, Switzerland, Canada, and the United States are among the most universalist. Australia and the UK are also toward this end of the scale.Germany is closer to the center, as is France, but the latter sits on the particularist side of the scale. Korea, Russia, and China are the most particularist of countries. (Note that some of the countries studied by Hofstede, like the strongly particularist Yugoslavia, no longer exist. ) 2 Individualism versus collectivism. This dimension, clearly building on Hofstede, centers on whether individual rights and values are dominant or subordina te to those of the collective society. The most individualist countries are Canada, the United States, Switzerland, and the UK.Among the most collectivist are Japan, Egypt, and India (and Nepal and Kuwait). 3 Neutral versus emotional. This reflects how much emotions are displayed in the workplace. More importantly it indicates whether emotional or subjective (rather than objective) forms of assessment are thought to be the basis for good decision making in organizations. Some organizations emphasize reports, data, and analytical decision making by managers, whereas others feel that opinions, intuition, and gut feelings are thinkable or valid criteria.Predictably the most emotional countries include Italy and France and the least emotional groups (in the workplace at least) are the Japanese, Germans, Swiss, Chinese, and Indonesians. 4 Specific versus diffuse. Do work relationships (such as the hierarchical relationship between a senior manager and a subordinate) exist just in the wo rkplace (are they RUGM_C05. QXD 8/18/08 152 PM Page 139 CHAPTER 5 INTERNATIONAL CULTURE specific), or do they extend into the social context outside the workplace (diffuse)? Here a telling example is whether an employee is willing to help cay a senior managers house over a weekend.Clearly Australian bosses are likely to get a characteristically blunt answer to this request China, Japan, India, and Singapore display highly diffuse relationships, Australia and the Netherlands the most specific. Achievement oriented Where status is earned rather than a right recruitment and promotion opportunities tend to be more dependent on performance, as in a meritocracy Ascription oriented Where status is more of a right than earned recruitment and promotion opportunities tend to be more dependent on seniority, ethnicity, gender, religion, or birth SequentialCultures that view time in a sequential or linear fashion order comes from separating activities and commitments Synchronic Cultures that vi ew events in parallel over time order comes from coordinating multiple activities and commitments 5 Achievement versus ascription. This dimension refers to ones status within organizations, contrasting those cultures where status, credibility, authority, and ultimately power tend to be based on merit (achieved) against those where class, gender, education, or age tend to be the defining characteristics (status is ascribed).Countries where status tends to be ascribed include Egypt, Turkey, and Argentina (and slightly less so, Russia, Japan, and France), and those where it is achieved include Norway, Sweden, and predictably the United States, Australia, Canada, and the UK. 6 Attitudes toward time. Sequential (time as a sequence of events) versus synchronic (several events juggled at the same time) views of time tend to colligate to promptity for meetings and deadlines. Swedes and other northern European cultures tend to be punctual and plan according to specific timetables.Many sout hern European, Latin American, and Arabic cultures see punctuality and chronological precision as far less important. They also tend to naturally cope with a range of issues simultaneously, rather than one by one. 7 Attitudes toward the environment. This dimension reflects the accent mark a particular culture places on peoples relationship with nature and the natural environment. On the one hand some cultures emphasize control and subjugation of environmental forces, whereas others emphasize the need to work with nature, in harmony with the environment.Clearly religious and philosophic differences around the world influence differences within this dimension. Trompenaars seven dimensions have been used in a variety of ways to gain insights into the kinds of problems that might arise in the contexts (face to face, company to company, and company to customer) outlined in Figure 5. 1. In general they indicate the organizational characteristics we can expect from firms based in particu lar countries or rund by certain nationalities. They are also used to measure changes in cultural values and behavior over time.Research shows that in both Japan and China, for example, achievement penchant is on the add-on alongside some elements of individualism. 12 The Japanese are moving aside from a reliance on collectivism in the form of the state, large firms, and group associations and placing more value on personal responsibility and individual performance. In China there is a shift in companies toward performance-related rewards and individual initiative, built on the changing views of the growing urban elite.But there are also wider concerns regarding the social costs as well as the benefits of self-interest. The egg projects nine dimensions of culture More recent research has built on the Hofstede and Trompenaars research. The Global leaders and Organizational Behavior authority (GLOBE) project began in 1992 and continues today. It has involved 150 researchers colle cting data on cultural values and management and leadership attributes from 18,000 managers across 62 countries in the telecommunications, food, and banking industries. 3 In the same way as Hofstede and Trompenaars before them, the researchers place countries along a standard 1 to 7 scale. The GLOBE project, however, ends up with nine key cultural dimensions 1 Assertiveness. The United States, Austria, Germany, and Greece are high Sweden, Japan, and New Zealand are low. 2 Future orientation. A propensity for planning, investing, delayed gratification Singapore, Switzerland, and the Netherlands are high Russia, Argentina, and Italy are low. 139 RUGM_C05. QXD 8/18/08 416 PM Page cxl PART TWO THE ENVIRONMENT OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS Gender differentiation. The degree to which gender role differences are maximized South Korea, Egypt, India, and the China are high Hungary, Poland, and Denmark are low. 4 Uncertainty avoidance. A reliance on societal norms and procedures to break predic tability, a preference for order, structure, and formality Sweden, Switzerland, and Germany are high Russia, Bolivia, and Greece are low. 5 Power distance. Russia, Thailand, and Spain are high Denmark, the Netherlands, and Israel are low. 6 Institutional collectivism (individualism vs. ollectivism). Promoting active participation in social institutions Sweden, South Korea, and Japan are high Greece, Argentina, and Italy are low. 7 In-group/family collectivism. A pride in small-group membership, family, close friends, etc. Iran, India, and China are high Denmark, Sweden, and New Zealand are low. 8 Performance orientation (much like achievement orientation). Singapore, Hong Kong, and the United States are high Russia, Argentina, and Italy are low. benevolent orientation Cultures that emphasize helping others, charity, and eoples wider social obligations 9. Humane orientation. An emphasis on fairness, altruism, and generosity Ireland, Malaysia, and Egypt are high Germany, Spain, Fran ce, Singapore, and Brazil are low. As you can see, many of these dimensions match those of Hofstede and Trompenaars, and the overall GLOBE framework is very much an extension of their approach. The GLOBE researchers have examined the HRM implications of these cultural differences for practicing managers and looked at ways to avoid the pitfalls of ignorance and insensitivity. 4 A similar long-running study by the CRANET communicate has focused on European cultural differences and reports similar findings. 15 As with the other cultural mapping studies by Hofstede and Trompenaars, GLOBE has faced some critical appraisal, which helps us understand the strengths and weaknesses of its concluding framework. A recent set of debates has usefully raised some methodological issues associated with these kinds of studies, and provides interesting points of contention we should be aware of, rather than blindly accepting the above kind of research. 6 Applying the national culture frameworks Diffe rent styles of communication and interaction result from the cultural differences listed above. These can lead to workplace misunderstandings, poor interpersonal and intergroup relationships, inefficiency, and higher costs. threesome examples provide some insights into how we can apply the above typologies. US managers, according to all of the above studies, are highly assertive and performance oriented relative to managers from other parts of the world (they come around the sum on all the other dimensions).Their interaction style is characteristically direct and explicit. They tend to use facts, figures, and logic to link specific steps to measurable outcomes, and this is the main focus of workplace interaction. Greeks and Russians are less individualistic, less performance oriented, and show lower levels of uncertainty avoidance (are less driven by procedures) than the Americans. When Russian and Greek managers, employees, customers, suppliers, or public-sector officials interac t with US counterparts, they may well find their approach too direct and results focused.For them communication is likely to be more about mutual learning and an exploration of relevant issues than an explicit hold upment about specific expectations and end results. Similarly, the Swedes may find the US style too aggressive and unfriendly, working against the relationship-building process that for them is a major objective of workplace interaction. The Koreans and Japanese have highly gender-differentiated societies with males tending to dominate decision making and leading most face-to-face communication. The agenda 140 RUGM_C05. QXD 8/18/08 152 PMPage 141 CHAPTER 5 INTERNATIONAL CULTURE Ethnocentric A belief in the superiority of ones own ethnic group the dominance of the homecountry culture in decision making, human resource management, and overall corporate culture in a multinational firm for discussion is likely set by males, and traditional language forms differ according to whether a man is addressing a woman or an older person talking to a younger person, and vice versa. Gender- (and age-)related roles, responsibilities, and behaviors are therefore deeply embedded in language and customs. 7 Poland and Denmark lie at the other end of the continuum on the gender-differentiation dimension. Perhaps even more than other Western managers, their lack of awareness of this cultural difference runs the risk of both embarrassing female employees and offending and alienating senior Japanese male managers. This kind of clash can make negotiations and interaction of all kinds between these groups that much more difficult. Certain kinds of HRM techniques are contradictory for organizations that show high power distance ratings.Companies and management consultancies in the UK, the United States, and northern European countries have developed fairly participative management systems to improve productivity, based on their characteristically low power distance and mon otonic organizational hierarchies. Techniques such as 360-degree feedback systems for developing managementemployee relationships are not likely to work, however, in Mexican, Panamanian, Thai, or Russian organizations, which have high power distance and steep hierarchies.Subordinates are uncomfortable being asked to evaluate senior managers, and managers would not see subordinates as qualified to comment on their performance. More than this, to employees in some countries this kind of consultation can give the plan that senior managers do not know what they are doing The employees may lose faith in senior managements ability and leave None of the above examples means that international managers should (or ever could) entirely change their behavior to suit local values and practices.Like many of the challenges facing managers, cultural sensitivity and cross-cultural effectiveness come from striking a balance between ones own norms, values, and principles and those of the foreigner. The lesson for multinational firms is that ethnocentric corporate cultures and completely standardized HR systems do not work. The key challenge is to adapt to get the best from local differences. ? Active learning check Review your answer to Active Learning Case question 2 and make any changes you like. Then compare your answer to the one below. 2How well do the characteristics described in the case match the respective, stereotypical national cultures of these countries? According to the above frameworks they match reasonably well. The US culture is characterized as individualistic, achievement/performance oriented, and assertive. Most of these traits clash with the feminine (in Hofstedes characterization) values of relationships, modesty, caring, and the quality of life emphasized by the Swedes. Hofstede finds US managers less hierarchical than most cultures, which is not indicated in the PharmaciaUpjohn case. However, as Figure 5. shows, both countries have a low power distance and high individualism rating, relative to other countries, but the United States has slightly higher power distance (steeper management hierarchy) than Sweden. Sweden also has a relatively high uncertainty avoidance ranking, preferring order, structure, and formality, which does not stand out in the case study. Swedes are also high on institutional collectivism but low on family or small-group collectivism. The Italians are the opposite. Unlike the Americans, the Italians are not at all oriented toward achievement (Trompenaars) or performance (GLOBE).They are also more emotional than the Swedes and Americans according to Hofstede and have a relatively low early orientation (GLOBE). 141 RUGM_C05. QXD 8/18/08 152 PM Page 142 PART TWO THE ENVIRONMENT OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS The way we do things here the implications of cultural differences for organizations and managers Mapping out a variety of national cultural typologies using the various dimensions of culture described above gi ves us some insights into the kinds of differences that exist among different groups of managers, employees, and organizations.Two key questions about the role of the individual in a firm and the role of a firm in a society from Trompenaars study give us a starting point to explore the management implications of cultural differences. The responses in Figure 5. 3 reflect the degree of support for the particular proposition A or B for each of these questions. Americans clearly display what has been termed (originally by the sociologist Max Weber) a mechanistic and functional view of the firm as an organization (A) and a shareholderdriven, profit-oriented view of this organization in society (although more than half the US vote in Figure 5. was for option B). The Japanese tend to have a more perfect view of the firm, emphasizing the importance of social networks and the obligation of the firm to a wider constituency of stakeholders (although this is a characteristic of traditional Jap an that has been strongly tested in the recent recessionary environment). A wide range of factors within organizations are influenced directly or indirectly by the cultural predispositions of managers and employees. We know from the above studies and a wide range of other research that these factors include The general relationship between employees and the organization their roles and responsibilities, obligations, and loyalties and the link this has with life outside the workplace. Figure 5. 3 Excerpts from Trompenaars cultural attitudes survey Source Hampden-Turner, C. and Trompenaars, F. The Seven Cultures of Capitalism Value Systems for Creating Wealth in the United States, Britain, Japan, Germany, France, Sweden and the Netherlands (New York Doubleday, 1993). 142 RUGM_C05. QXD 8/18/08 152 PM Page 143 CHAPTER 5 INTERNATIONAL CULTURE Hierarchy, power and authority, and the accepted routes to attaining these, including factors that underpin status and credibility in different soc ieties and organizations. The role of formal rules and regulations versus the informal communication, personal networks, and hidden rules of the game. The accepted basis for decision making, including rationale, scientific, mechanistic, and objective versus subjective, tacit, rule of thumb, etc. The degree to which employees act and are treated as individuals or groups and the role of interpersonal relationships. motive and rewards systems. Interaction and communication mechanisms. Work attitudes and the appropriate management of work attitudes have a significant influence on productivity and innovativeness in a company. Managers and employees who are motivated by their core social values to work hard and continually strive to improve their companys products and services and the processes by which they are produced are clearly a source of emulous advantage. It is interesting to note how social norms may drive a strong work ethic despite individual dissatisfaction with workloa d or job responsibilities.This has been shown in several companies between US and Japanese factory workers where the Japanese are found to be more loyal and aligned with company objectives but far less satisfied individually. 18 Table 5. 2 compares interview responses from sample workforces in seven countries. The resulting ranking of what it is that employees value most from their jobs shows that interesting work is what tends to engage most people, beyond everything else. Table 5. 2 Average and intra-country ranking of work goals a seven-nation comparison Work goals Belgium UK Germany Israel Japan Netherlands United StatesOpportunity to learn 5. 8a 7b 5. 55 8 4. 97 9 5. 83 5 6. 26 7 5. 38 9 6. 16 5 Interpersonal relations 6. 34 5 6. 33 4 6. 43 4 6. 67 2 6. 39 6 7. 19 3 6. 08 7 Opportunity for promotion 4. 49 10 4. 27 11 4. 48 10 5. 29 8 3. 33 11 3. 31 11 5. 08 10 Convenient work hours 4. 71 9 6. 11 5 5. 71 6 5. 53 7 5. 46 8 5. 59 8 5. 25 9 Variety 5. 96 6 5. 62 7 5. 71 6 4. 89 11 5. 05 9 6. 86 4 6. 10 6 Interesting work 8. 25 1 8. 02 1 7. 26 3 6. 75 1 6. 38 2 7. 59 2 7. 41 1 line of reasoning security system 6. 80 3 7. 12 3 7. 57 2 5. 22 10 6. 71 4 5. 68 7 6. 30 3 Match between the people and the work 5. 77 8 5. 63 6 6. 09 5 5. 61 6 7. 83 1 6. 17 6. 19 4 Pay 7. 13 2 7. 80 2 7. 73 1 6. 60 3 6. 56 5 5. 27 5 6. 82 2 Working conditions 4. 19 11 4. 87 9 4. 39 11 5. 28 9 4. 18 10 5. 03 10 4. 84 11 Autonomy 6. 56 4 4. 69 10 5. 66 8 6. 00 4 6. 89 3 7. 61 1 5. 79 8 a First row shows sightly rank on a scale of 1 to 10. Second row shows ranking of work goals within each country, with a rank of 1 being most important and 11 being least important. b Source Adapted from Itzhak Harpaz, The Importance of Work Goals An International Perspective, Journal of International Business Studies, vol . 21, no. 1 (1990), p. 81. 143 RUGM_C05. QXD 8/18/08 152 PM Page 144PART TWO THE ENVIRONMENT OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS cross-cultural MANAGEMENT Three key areas capture many of the fa ctors covered by the above typologies and cultural stereotypes, where cultural differences can make a significant difference at the company-tocompany and face-to-face levels. These are organization, leadership, and communication (see Figure 5. 4). Organization Organization styles range from organic, informal, or people oriented to systematic or mechanistic, formal, or task oriented, in keeping with some common organizational dimensions described by sociologists throughout history (such as Max Weber and Emile Durkheim).Organizations that operate very much around personal relationships and social networks contrast those that are much more functional and logical. In fact different cultures and different firms display elements of both these characteristics, but the balance varies considerably and can create tensions when groups of people or firms from different ends of the spectrum interact or try to cooperate. As an aid to predicting differences among individuals, groups, or firms, and understanding the significance of these variations, relative differences among countries, organizations, and groups of people are important, rather than any absolute whips.For example, family companies are characteristically guiding, individual oriented but organic. Multinational firms are usually more autocratic and mechanistic. Consulting and professional services firms are often mechanistic and emphasize individual performance and rewards but may also be fairly team oriented. Entrepreneurial new ventures will usually be organic, disorganized, and group oriented. Leadership Leadership styles range from individual oriented, directive, autocratic, top down, or authoritarian to group oriented, participative, democratic, bottom up, or egalitarian.Again, cultural groups and corporations often encompass both kinds of leadership but tend to reflect one dominant style. Individual managers from cultures that score high on the power distance or assertiveness dimensions are likely to be viewed by those from other cultures as autocratic and directive but will tend to view others as indecisive and too compromising. They will not want to spend too much time discussing issues to achieve a consensus. If they also reflect an organic Figure 5. 4 Management dimensions of culture 144 RUGM_C05. QXD 8/18/08 52 PM Page 145 CHAPTER 5 INTERNATIONAL CULTURE or informal (low uncertainty avoidance) culture, this will result in an instinctive or unsystematic decision-making and implementation style, and they might be viewed as an unpredictable autocrat. This contrasts the combination of high power distance and high uncertainty avoidance, which results in a more directive and mechanistic style. Such leaders prefer established formal routines and a command-and-control bureaucracy, while other managers are likely to see this as over-regulated and inflexible.The Pharmacia and Upjohn case demonstrates a range of these styles and the problems that result from the imposition of a new style of organization and leadership within a corporate merger. Communication Culture clash When two cultural groups (national or corporate) meet, interact, or work together and differences in their values, beliefs, rules of behavior, or styles of communication create misunderstandings, antagonism, or other problems Clearly, at the face-to-face level language differences can be the most prominent barrier to communication and therefore to cooperation and coordination.English speakers tend to have an advantage in many situations since English has emerged as the main language of business globally. However, this has led to complacency among some indigenous English speakers, notably the British and the North Americans. First, less effort is often made to learn other languages and their associated cultures, which normally limits a managers understanding of foreign colleagues, workers, or customers. Second, the assumption is often made that once the language barrier is downcast cultural differ ences are also removed, whereas these may emain, causing miscommunication and misinterpretation. As for much of this chapter on culture, preparation and awareness are the best starting points for minimizing differences that can create problems. It is through efficient communication that two parties steer toward an understanding a mutually agreed basis for doing business. The signs and signals on this route to an understanding are strongly influenced by culture. Different groups have different ways of displaying approval or of showing frustration in negotiations and different ideas of what constitutes a final agreement.The Japanese do not really have an same word for the English no and indicate disapproval in a range of non- communicatory ways. The Japanese word hai does mean yes but it often means yes, I understand what you are saying not yes, I agree with what you are saying. Germans place a lot of emphasis on scripted communications and documented evidence rather than verbal int eraction, compared to the Spanish and Italians to whom verbal interaction and agreement is recognized as binding in some contexts.The Americans prefer legal contracts and have armies of lawyers to make agreements highly specified. Other, more organic business cultures tend to work toward a relationship in which trust and understanding replace the need for legally binding contracts. Again, awareness through preparation and anticipation of differences is the best starting point for avoiding culture clash. The corporate response How have MNEs responded to the challenge of managing across cultural boundaries?What kinds of organization structures, HRM procedures, and corporate cultures have been developed to cope with the enormous differences among people and to unify this diversity toward a common purpose? At a very general level good transnational firms develop an awareness and appreciation of cultural differences among their managers and employees. They also take steps to encourage ad aptation of personal behavior or organizational practices, or products and services, to suit the changing mix of cultures within the firm, in subsidiaries and in key markets. Training programs, including a range of activities at the induction stage, when new ecruits join a firm or brisk personnel take up a role in a new country, are a standard way for firms to do these things. Job rotation, with a focus on developing international managers with personal experience in a variety of different countries, is also practiced by a number of firms. It is 145 RUGM_C05. QXD 8/18/08 152 PM Page 146 PART TWO THE ENVIRONMENT OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS normally very difficult to assess such practices using any form of costbenefit analysis. The costs are usually tardily identifiable, but the benefits are very often intangible.For many exp