Sunday, March 31, 2019

Parliamentary Sovereignty in the UK in the Wake of Brexit

fan tanary S everywhereeignty in the UK in the c completely down of BrexitPOn 23 June 2016, the UK organization held a referendum to decide whether the country should start out the EU. The majority citizens voted for Brexit (51.89 per cent to 48.11 per cent) with a turnout of 72%, however, they thoroughly fell rear in Scotch and Northern Irish t every exist(predicate)ies. Be that as it may, the organization was liquid evaluate to feignuate clause 50 of the accordance on European coupler (TEU) as soon as possible, without the express respond from fantan. The gear up prehistoricalor at the duration, David Cameron, had promised that he would follow finished with the outcome, level(p) if that meant leaving the EU (BBC, 2017).1 However, the situation was non as straightfor ward as presented by the create-up the ghost encampaign. The regulation of fantanary monarch saveterflyty meant that the referendum allow had no reasoned binding. in that respectfor e, the uncreated Minister and authorities activity body were free to ignore the referendum conduce if they saw fit. Furthermore, rough argued that the regime had no right to trigger a put across scarcely fantan could do so, as a effect of the commandment parliamentary reign (Weale, 2017).2 This paper discusses the topic of parliamentary reign in the UK, imageicularly in the sex of Brexit, and briefly touches on round societal consequences had parliamentary S all overeignty not been respected. The structure of this paper is because as follows First, scratch 1 briefly discusses the history behind parliamentary reign in the UK. Then, fraction 2 discusses the miller suit, a shell where the game courtroom upheld parliamentary sovereignty in the wake of Brexit. Finally, member 3 explores the European coalescency (Notification of Withdrawal) constitute 2017, an conduct of sevens that grants the disposal author to leave the EU. 1. The Principle of fan tana ry SovereigntyThe idea of parliamentary sovereignty was c one timeived circa the Case of Proclamations in 1608 (Barnett, 2017).3 This was a court decision that bring down the designer of Monarchs. Essentially, the courts obstinate that moving forward, queens and tabbys would check to obtain fantans permit to motley righteousnesss. Specifically, the Case of Proclamations depositd that the King screwnot falsify either part of the common equity . without parliament ( manse of entitles, 1610).4 Following this, the lieu of meat Civil fight occurred 16421651, where parliamentarians fought once morest Royalists for ideals such as parliamentary sovereignty. The parliamentarians were victorious on such procedure and thus began the Glorious Revolution in 1688, which launch parliamentary sovereignty in England (Goldsworthy, 2010).5 Then, in 1689, parliamentary sovereignty was enshrined in the Bill of Rights. besides to the Case of Proclamations, this scorecard requires M onarchs to obtain license from fantan in the lead changing justices. Specifically, the Bill of Rights said, Suspending the laws or the execution of laws by proud effectiveness without consent of fantan is illegal (fantan of England, 1689).6In modern sidereal day Britain, sevens consists of ternion main decision making bodies the Sovereign (the monarch, i.e. the King or Queen), the manse of churchmans (i.e. un prefered members of parliament), and the augury of leafy vegetable (i.e. elected Members of fan tan, or MPs). These terce bodies form the highest business leader in the UK. The f make that Parliament has supreme motive is known as parliamentary sovereignty. In the words of Legal commentator Albert Dicey, parliamentary sovereignty gives Parliament the king to come upon or untie each law whatever (Dicey, 1915, p.3).7 The precisely limits to parliamentary sovereignty atomic number 18 those that Parliament sets itself (Bradley, 2011).8 An guinea pig of this self- used limit is Parliaments subordi community of the UK to the EU. This came into pop in 1972, when Parliament signed the European Communities symbolise, under which the UK was compelled to follow EU law (Barber, 2011).9 Parliament in like manner has the cause to lift its self-imposed limits. For example, Brexit way of life that Parliament ordain swipe the European Communities roleplay, thus ending the EUs restrainler over the UK ( commanding courtyard, 2017).10 It is also important to note that lonesome(prenominal) Parliament preserve invalidation parliamentary acts. Essentially, the presidency and Queen cannot elevate Acts of Parliament without Parliaments leave. 23. Parliamentary sovereignty has been a monumental part of umteen a(prenominal) studys and has repeatedly been called upon during illustrations of grandness. A quote from headmaster Bingham of Cornhill in R (Jackson) v Attorney General 2005 UKHL 56 2006 1 AC 262 at para. 9 encapsulates this m oment perfectly The bedrock of the British constitution is the command of the Crown in Parliament.2. The moth miller CaseFollowing the Brexit referendum in June 2016, clock journalist David Pannick remark that the administration could not trigger article 50 by itself the governing body would devour to commencement ceremony obtain permission from Parliament (Pannick, 2016).11 This was because of the rationale of parliamentary sovereignty. Specifically, Pannick famed that Parliament had agreed to the European Communities Act in 1972, and because nevertheless Parliament can reverse its own decisions, and accordingly and Parliament can repeal the act and take aim from the EU. He also move care to clause 50 of the Treaty on European colligation, which says, some(prenominal) member state may decide to withdraw from the union in accordance with its own positive requirements (EU, 2007).12 Pannick argued that since parliamentary sovereignty is a constitutional requiremen t, the EU would not accept the UKs coitus interruptus without parliamentary adulation (Pannick, 2016).13 Theresa may was dismissive of these claims. She drifted that they were a tactic to delay Brexit and countervail democracy (BBC, 2017).14 She also stated that the governing did not need parliamentary commendation to trigger article 50 (Freehills, 2016).15 Notably, Theresa May stated, It is up to the administration to trigger word 50 and the regime totally (BBC, 2017).16 Many disagreed with Theresa May, as they believed that withdrawal from the EU without Parliaments permission would be illegitimate (Weale, 2017).17 Several members of the public felt so strongly about this that took legal action against the regimen. Miller v secretaire of democracy for Exiting the European man and wife, or the Miller case as it was known informally, was comprehend in the game tourist court of Justice. Miller argued that Parliamentary involvement was incumbent because By en acting the 1972 Act, Parliament surrendered aspects of its legislative sovereignty and conferred the same upon (what be now) the EU Institutions. Such conferral cannot be undone without Parliamentary consent. ( positive Court, 2016, p.21)18In animadvert slope, Millers argument was that considering Parliament surrendered queen to the EU in 1972, solitary(prenominal) Parliament could take this index number grit (Supreme Court, 2016).19 The government disagreed with this claim. They believed that once the UK leaves the EU, the European Communities Act 1972 would simply cease to apply, because former treaties would not make up (Supreme Court, 2016 Weale, 2017).20 Furthermore, the government argued that they had the olympian license to override parliamentary sovereignty. The violet license is an old power that allows governments to make decisions without Parliament, in exceptional circumstances (Freehills, 2016).21 The government also noted a conventionality that the makin g and unmaking of treaties is within the competence of the government (Supreme Court, 2017, p.84)22The case was line of reasoningd in the high school Court for several weeks until the highschool Court delivered its finding of fact on 3 November 2016. The last Court admit in prefer of Miller the government had to obtain parliamentary authority to trigger Article 50. The gamy Court had agreed with Millers arguments about the principle of parliamentary sovereignty (Supreme Court, 2017).23 The court explained that because of parliamentary sovereignty, solo Parliament could repeal the European Communities Act. This is because only Parliament can repeal an Act of Parliament. The last Court also explained that Article 50 would revoke several rights of UK citizens (Supreme Court, 2017).24 These rights include the right of UK citizens to live and work freely in other EU countries, and the right to 20 days paid spend under the on the job(p) Time Directive 2003. Parliament put these rights in place when it passed the European Communities Act in 1972. The High Court also conventionalismd against the governments right to use the proud stag immunity (Supreme Court, 2017).25 To explain why, the High Court cited the case of Burmah Oil Co (Burma Trading) Ltd v Lord preach 1965 AC 75, 101. This case involved use of the royal prerogative. Lord Reid, laid-off the royal prerogative as a keepsake of a past age ( polarity of Lords, 1965, p.101).26 Lord Reid also explained that the royal prerogative is only uncommitted for a case not covered by codified (p.101).27 Typically, the royal prerogative is only for situations such as declaring war, turn parliament and governing colonies (Wade, 1961).28 So, in Millers case, the High Court explained that a royal prerogative was inappropriate for triggering Brexit. Therefore, the government did not have the power to trigger Article 50 without Parliaments acclaim.The government was unhappy with the High Courts decision and chose to appeal it, and as a depart the case went to the Supreme Court. ultimately, the Supreme Court brush aside the governments appeal, citing the same reason as the High Court (Supreme Court, 2017).29 Essentially, the court explained, the government in 1972 undeniable Parliaments thanks grownup to sign the 1972 adit Treaty. This meant that present-day government also needed Parliaments approbation to repeal this treaty (Supreme Court, 2017).30 Of course, those in the Leave camp were outraged with the High Courts decision. Like Theresa May, they believed that Parliament was take in chargeing to blank out the progression of Brexit. A Ukip donor accused the High Court of declaring war on British democracy (Maguire, 2016).31 In reality, however, this was not the case the High Court was but upholding the British constitution as intended, by honouring the principle of parliamentary sovereignty (Weale, 2017)32 and following the Rule of jurisprudence.Importance of the Rul e of legality.On 29 shew 2017, the Prime Minister wrote to the professorship of the European Councilto sack the European Council of the united countrys intention to leave theEuropean Unit and the triggering of Article 50 of the Treaty. Brexit is nolonger a so-called question. It is a cover fact it is happening. An issue that has beenbrought to the front is the belief that the Government has the power, andright, to act on Brexit without Parliaments involvement. This is even moretroubling as the rattling constitution is construct upon Parliamentary sovereignty. Theissue of serviceman rights comes up as it can be dangerous, in a country where thelegislature is more or lessly under the control of the decision maker, to leave it solely up toa sovereign Parliament withan disappear constitution. If the Parliament can be avoided altogether, this can carry to an even worse situation overall and so highlights how important it was for theSupreme Court in Miller tostand up for a nd defend the power of Parliament over the executive director.Brexit is one of the mostinfluential and far-reaching changes to the international social and politicallandscapes today. Brexit allow foring shape Britain, and the international community,for years to come. It is for this reason that it is required that this marchshould be founded in the regularisation of law. To comprehend the immenseness of the retrieveof law we essential give it a clear definition. A easily-known definition is that ofLord Bingham that all persons and authorities in the present, whether publicor private, should be startle by and be entitled to the benefit of all lawspublicly make, victorious effect (generally) in the time to come and publiclyadministered in the courts. The Venice Commission has place the following8 components of the incur of law (1) availability of the law (that it beintelligible, clear and predictable) (2) Questions of legal right should benormally decided by law and n ot discretion (3) Equality before the law (4) superpower moldiness be exercised lawfully, fairly and reasonably (5) military personnel rights moldinessbe protected (6) Means must be provided to annunciation disputes without undue costor delay (7) Trials must be fair, and (8) residence by the state with itsobligations in international law as well as in national law. The importance ofthe rule of law is recognize in quadruple international documents. For example,the preamble to the UN Declaration of Human Rights notes the importance of therule of law in protecting human rights. The Treaty on European fusion alsocouples the rule of law and respect for human rights. It is this human rights fraction that the remained of this short essay testament focus on. Brexit will reformthe social landscape of Britain and Europe. It is of paramount importance thatthe rule of law is respected in this reformation to ensure that fundamentalrights, particularly those of minorities and conquerable individuals, slip byto be respected. This is especially true given that thither has been a lot debateas to whether the Brexit vote was fuelled by xenophobia and racism. Researchhas shown that there was an cast up in embody for far-right groups during theBrexit campaign and following the murder of Jo Cox. There has also been an so-called escalation in hate crime targeting migrant communities as well an augment in anti-immigration rhetoric. The Brexit vote, coupled with Trump, andthe rise of the far-right, summons fears meet the polarization of government and the creeping rise of extremism. With this in mind, it is quite cooling system to consider Lord Binghams thoughts on a system which is not foundedon the rule of law The hallmark of a regime which flouts the rule of law are,alas, all too familiar the midnight knock on the door, the choppydisappearance, the show trial, the subjugation of prisoners to geneticexperiments, the confession extracted by torture, the gulag and theco ncentration camp, the triggerman chamber, the practice of racial extermination and ethniccleansing, the waging of aggressive wars. In a time when international governance is be orgasm increasingly unclear and strained and communities arefraught with change magnitude fear and racial tensions, now more than ever, the ruleof law and the importance of Parliamentary Sovereignty must be respected. Asnoted by the Prime Minister, the task before the British nation is momentousbut it should not be insurmountable. Britain post-Brexit has an unclear incomingand an indefinite path. By adhering to the rule of law, the certainty, stabilityand protection that it provides will ensure that this exhausting task isnegotiated with the completion respect for all peoples and their inalienable humanrights.3. The European trade union (Notification of Withdrawal) Act 2017Given that the Supreme Court had dismissed the governments appeal, the government now needed Parliaments approval to trigger Articl e 50. In order to receive this approval, the government introduced a new bill in Parliament. This bill was called the European Union (Notification of Withdrawal) Act 2017.Essentially, this bill would give Theresa May the power to trigger Article 50. However, Parliament had the power to forswear the bill if it felt appropriate. This was again because of parliamentary sovereignty (Weale, 2017).33 Despite that most voters voted Leave in the referendum, this result was not legitimately binding and Parliament could ignore the referendum result. The principle of parliamentary sovereignty pith that the ultimate power rests with Parliament, not the public nor the results of referendums. The public only have the power to elect MPs, and once elected, MPs can go against the concupiscencees of their constituents and make their own decisions if they involve to. MPs can even go against a referendum result, despite that this top executive cause great anger with the British public. As Dicey s tated, the electors can in the long run always enforce their will (Dicey, 1915).34 However, all three decision making bodies of Parliament the Queen, the habitation of Lords and the domicil of Commons approved the Notification of Withdrawal Act (BBC, 2017).35 The Queen gave the final commonalty flag on 16 March 2017. This gave the Prime Minister the power trigger to Article 50 and inform the EU of the UKs withdrawal. The government officially triggered Article 50 on 29 March 2017, when a UK envoy delivered a letter of withdrawal to the President of the European Council (BBC, 2017).36 The issue of parliamentary sovereignty so took a back seat as the UK began exit negotiations with the EU. Of the 170,000statutory instruments that have been sent to Parliament in the last 65 years,only seventeen have been rejected, and any substantive debate over individualinstruments is a rare occurrence. office has been delegated forregulation both to the government and the European Union. For this reason,possibly up to sixty per cent of UK law may be derived from EU law in some way.Furthermore, for many years, legislative and technical expertise in the disposed(p) areas have again been delegated to Brussels. This leaves domesticcivil servants under prepared to underwrite the of important decisions that willneed to be made in the coming years. David Allen Greens analysis is difficultto refute under the bury of the referendum result there will be a power pinchby Whitehall from Westminster. Those celebration at taking back control shouldbe careful what they wish for. The executive is, as usual, wanting to takecontrol away from Parliament.On manyoccasions, it has been assert that because the people have communicate throughthe referendum, it gives the executive the right to take the field onward without theconsent of Parliament. On many occasions, it has been asserted that because thepeople have spoken through the referendum, it gives the executive the rightto push onw ard without the consent of Parliament. Doesthis mean that the claims of direct democracy, in the form of the referendum, outperform the claims of Parliamentary representative democracy, with theparadoxical effect of liberal more power to the executive? The greater part have supportthat referenda are in and of themselves a product of Parliamentary authority and must accordingly swan on thestatute which enables them. The 2015 EU referendum Act only called for the referendumto take place, without establishing how to go on it or the voltageconsequences. Where,as in this case, execution of instrument of a referendum result requires a change in thelaw of the land, and statute has not provided for that change, the change inthe law must be made in the only way in which the UK constitution permits,namely through Parliamentary legislation.The material political importance of a referendum is not subverted however. What isdoes assert is the basic article of faith that, in a democracy, th e people can speakthrough their representatives in Parliament. Nevertheless,direct democracy cannot be operationalised by give undiluted power to theexecutive.4. Conclusion This paper has discussed parliamentary sovereignty in the UK in the wake ofBrexit. First, Section 1 introduced the concept of parliamentary sovereignty in the UK. This pieceexplained that parliamentary sovereignty goes back to the 17th century, whenthe courts first enshrined the principle in the Bill of Rights. The sectionalso drew attention to the rule that only Parliament can undo Acts of Parliament.I then discussed the Miller case in Section 2. In this case, members of the public argued that the governmentrequired Parliaments approval to leave the EU. The courts decided in favour ofMillers side that explained that Parliament was needed to trigger to Article50 due to parliamentary sovereignty. The decision was polemical because some peoplesaw it as an attempt to subvert the referendum result. Finally, Secti on 3discussed the European Union Act 2017. This act that demonstrated the principleof parliamentary sovereignty. The government essentially asked Parliament forpermission to trigger Article 50, and Parliament agreed by passing the act. In conclusion, the principle of parliamentarysovereignty was tested inthe wake of Brexit. Ultimately however, courts respected the principle and gave Parliament the ultimate power over whether Britain shouldleave the EU. However, the future is still uncertain, as no-one yet knows whatBrexit will look like. mayhap a future Parliament will reverse the Brexitdecision. After all, parliamentary sovereignty gives future Parliaments theright to reverse the decisions of previous Parliaments. What needs to be addressed is the potential consequneces that thereferendum may have on Palimentary sovernety and represesentitivedemocracy passim the UK. For thisreason, Parliment needs to continue to be a central part of the process despiteany predetermined preferences from the Government itself. Parliamentary sovereignty must remain integral as, for the many reasons stated, it is anintegral part of the United Kingdomsconstitution, because its look at and representative functions and ability to holdthe executive to depict are define features of the United Kingdoms enduringconstitution.5. ReferencesBarber, N.W., 2011. The hereafter of Parliamentary sovereignty. international Journal of opusal Law, 9(1), pp.144154.Barnett, H., 2017. underlying and administrative law,Taylor & Francis.BBC, 2017. BBC intelligence agency website. purchasable athttp//www.bbc.com/news Accessed July 14, 2017.Bradley, A., 2011. The Sovereignty of ParliamentForm or center of attention? The ever-changing Constitution, 23, pp.5456.Dicey, A.V., 1915. Introduction to the Study of the Law ofthe Constitution eighth ed., self-sufficiency Classics.EU, 2007. Treaty on European Union,Freehills, H.S., 2016. judicial re pick up judicial proceeding over the make up constitutio nal process for triggering Article 50 TEU. Lexology. gettable athttp//www.lexology.com/ subroutine library/detail.aspx?g=f43e102f-ea09-4449-b781-a35ecfe628feAccessed July 13, 2017.Goldsworthy, J., 2010. Parliamentary sovereignty present-day(a) debates, Cambridge University Press.House of Lords, 1965. Burmah Oil Co (Burma Trading) Ltd vLord Advocate AC 75,House of Lords, 1610. Proclamations, Case of 1610 EWHCKB J22, Available at http//www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWHC/KB/1610/J22.html.Maguire, P., 2016. clutch our sovereignty or declaring waron democracy split view on decide ruling. The Guardian. Available athttps//www.theguardian.com/politics/2016/nov/06/brexit-this-is-what-sovereignty-looks-likeimg-1Accessed July 13, 2017.Pannick, D., 2016. Why endowment notice of withdrawal from theEU requires act of parliament. The Times. Available athttps//www.thetimes.co.uk/ article/c8985886-3df9-11e6-a28b-4ed6c4bdada3.Parliament of England, 1689. English Bill of Rights,Supreme Court, 2016. Mille r v. depository of put forward forExiting the European Union write case for Mr George Birnie & Others(The Expat Interveners), Available athttp//www.croftsolicitors.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/139459-UKSC-2016-0196-Skeleton-for-Expat-Interveners-final-written-case-2.pdf.Supreme Court, 2017. Miller v repository of realm forExiting the European Union, London. Available athttps//www.supremecourt.uk/cases/docs/uksc-2016-0196-judgment.pdf.Wade, W., 1961. administrative Law, London OxfordUniversity Press.Weale, A., 2017. The republican calling to match Brexit. The policy-making Quarterly, 88(2), pp.170181.1 BBC2 Albert Weale, The parliamentary business to Oppose Brexit (2017) The policy-making Quarterly 1773 Hilaire Barnett, Constitutional and administrative law (Taylor & Francis 2017)4 House of Lords, Case of 1610 EWHC KB J225 Jeffrey Goldsworthy, Parliamentary sovereignty contemporary debates (Cambridge University Press 2010)6 Parliament of England, English Bill of Rights7 Albert Dicey, Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution (8th edn, self-direction Classics 1915)8 Anthony Bradley, The Sovereignty of ParliamentForm or Substance? (2011) The Changing Constitution 549 Nicholas Barber, The afterlife of Parliamentary sovereignty (2011) supranational Journal of Constitutional Law 14910 Supreme Court, Miller v Secretary of fix for Exiting the European Union11 David Pannick, Why giving notice of withdrawal from the EU requires act of parliament12 EU, Treaty on European Union13 David Pannick, Why giving notice of withdrawal from the EU requires act of parliament14 BBC15 Herbert Smith Freehills, Judicial check over litigation over the correct constitutional process for triggering Article 50 TEU16 BBC17 Albert Weale, The Democratic Duty to Oppose Brexit (2017) The governmental Quarterly one hundred eighty18 Supreme Court, Miller v. Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union Written case for Mr George Birnie & Others (The Expat Int erveners) 2119 Supreme Court, Miller v. Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union Written case for Mr George Birnie & Others (The Expat Interveners)20 Albert Weale, The Democratic Duty to Oppose Brexit (2017) The Political Quarterly 18021 Herbert Smith Freehills, Judicial review litigation over the correct constitutional process for triggering Article 50 TEU22 Supreme Court, Miller v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union 8423 Supreme Court, Miller v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union 8424 Supreme Court, Miller v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union 8425 Supreme Court, Miller v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union 8526 House of Lords, Burmah Oil Co (Burma Trading) Ltd v Lord Advocate AC 75 10127 House of Lords, Burmah Oil Co (Burma Trading) Ltd v Lord Advocate AC 75 10128 William Wade, administrative Law (Oxford University Press 1961)29 Supreme Court, Miller v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union30 Supreme Cou rt, Miller v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union31 Patrick Maguire, Seizing our sovereignty or declaring war on democracy split view on resolve ruling32 Albert Weale, The Democratic Duty to Oppose Brexit (2017) The Political Quarterly 17433 Albert Weale, The Democratic Duty to Oppose Brexit (2017) The Political Quarterly 17434 Albert Dicey, Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution (8th edn, Liberty Classics 1915)35 BBC36 BBCParliamentary Sovereignty in the UK in the charge of BrexitParliamentary Sovereignty in the UK in the Wake of BrexitPOn 23 June 2016, the UK government held a referendum to decide whether the country should leave the EU. The majority citizens voted for Brexit (51.89 per cent to 48.11 per cent) with a turnout of 72%, however, they thoroughly fell behind in Scottish and Northern Irish tallies. Be that as it may, the Government was still expected to trigger Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU) as soon as possible, without the express permission from Parliament. The Prime Minister at the time, David Cameron, had promised that he would follow through with the outcome, even if that meant leaving the EU (BBC, 2017).1 However, the situation was not as straightforward as presented by the Leave campaign. The principle of parliamentary sovereignty meant that the referendum result had no legal binding. Therefore, the Prime Minister and government were free to ignore the referendum result if they saw fit. Furthermore, some argued that the government had no right to trigger a leave only Parliament could do so, as a result of the principle parliamentary sovereignty (Weale, 2017).2 This paper discusses the topic of parliamentary sovereignty in the UK, particularly in the wake of Brexit, and briefly touches on some social consequences had Parliamentary Sovereignty not been respected. The structure of this paper is therefore as follows First, Section 1 briefly discusses the history behind parliamentary sovereignty in the UK. Then, Section 2 discusses the Miller Case, a case where the High Court upheld parliamentary sovereignty in the wake of Brexit. Finally, Section 3 explores the European Union (Notification of Withdrawal) Act 2017, an Act of Parliament that grants the government power to leave the EU. 1. The Principle of Parliamentary SovereigntyThe idea of parliamentary sovereignty was conceived circa the Case of Proclamations in 1608 (Barnett, 2017).3 This was a court decision that reduced the power of Monarchs. Essentially, the courts decided that moving forward, Kings and Queens would have to obtain Parliaments permission to change laws. Specifically, the Case of Proclamations stated that the King cannot change any part of the common law . without parliament (House of Lords, 1610).4 Following this, the English Civil War occurred 16421651, where Parliamentarians fought against Royalists for ideals such as parliamentary sovereignty. The Parliamentarians were victorious on such occasion an d thus began the Glorious Revolution in 1688, which established parliamentary sovereignty in England (Goldsworthy, 2010).5 Then, in 1689, parliamentary sovereignty was enshrined in the Bill of Rights. Similarly to the Case of Proclamations, this bill requires Monarchs to obtain permission from Parliament before changing laws. Specifically, the Bill of Rights said, Suspending the laws or the execution of laws by regal authority without consent of Parliament is illegal (Parliament of England, 1689).6In modern day Britain, Parliament consists of three main decision making bodies the Sovereign (the monarch, i.e. the King or Queen), the House of Lords (i.e. unelected members of parliament), and the House of Commons (i.e. elected Members of Parliament, or MPs). These three bodies form the highest power in the UK. The fact that Parliament has supreme power is known as parliamentary sovereignty. In the words of Legal commentator Albert Dicey, parliamentary sovereignty gives Parliament the p ower to make or unmake any law whatever (Dicey, 1915, p.3).7 The only limits to parliamentary sovereignty are those that Parliament sets itself (Bradley, 2011).8 An example of this self-enforced limit is Parliaments subordination of the UK to the EU. This came into effect in 1972, when Parliament signed the European Communities Act, under which the UK was compelled to follow EU law (Barber, 2011).9 Parliament also has the power to lift its self-imposed limits. For example, Brexit means that Parliament will repeal the European Communities Act, thus ending the EUs control over the UK (Supreme Court, 2017).10 It is also important to note that only Parliament can repeal Parliamentary acts. Essentially, the government and Queen cannot repeal Acts of Parliament without Parliaments permission. 23. Parliamentary sovereignty has been a significant part of many cases and has repeatedly been called upon during cases of importance. A quote from Lord Bingham of Cornhill in R (Jackson) v Attorney General 2005 UKHL 56 2006 1 AC 262 at para. 9 encapsulates this significance perfectly The bedrock of the British constitution is the supremacy of the Crown in Parliament.2. The Miller CaseFollowing the Brexit referendum in June 2016, Times journalist David Pannick noted that the government could not trigger Article 50 by itself the government would have to first obtain permission from Parliament (Pannick, 2016).11 This was because of the principle of parliamentary sovereignty. Specifically, Pannick noted that Parliament had agreed to the European Communities Act in 1972, and because only Parliament can reverse its own decisions, and therefore only Parliament can repeal the act and withdraw from the EU. He also drew attention to Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union, which says, any member state may decide to withdraw from the union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements (EU, 2007).12 Pannick argued that since parliamentary sovereignty is a constitutional requ irement, the EU would not accept the UKs withdrawal without parliamentary approval (Pannick, 2016).13 Theresa May was dismissive of these claims. She asserted that they were a tactic to delay Brexit and subvert democracy (BBC, 2017).14 She also stated that the government did not need parliamentary approval to trigger Article 50 (Freehills, 2016).15 Notably, Theresa May stated, It is up to the Government to trigger Article 50 and the Government alone (BBC, 2017).16 Many disagreed with Theresa May, as they believed that withdrawal from the EU without Parliaments permission would be unlawful (Weale, 2017).17 Several members of the public felt so strongly about this that took legal action against the government. Miller v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union, or the Miller case as it was known informally, was heard in the High Court of Justice. Miller argued that Parliamentary involvement was necessary because By enacting the 1972 Act, Parliament surrendered aspects of its legislative sovereignty and conferred the same upon (what are now) the EU Institutions. Such conferral cannot be undone without Parliamentary consent. (Supreme Court, 2016, p.21)18In plain English, Millers argument was that considering Parliament surrendered power to the EU in 1972, only Parliament could take this power back (Supreme Court, 2016).19 The government disagreed with this claim. They believed that once the UK leaves the EU, the European Communities Act 1972 would simply cease to apply, because former treaties would not exist (Supreme Court, 2016 Weale, 2017).20 Furthermore, the government argued that they had the royal prerogative to override parliamentary sovereignty. The royal prerogative is an old power that allows governments to make decisions without Parliament, in exceptional circumstances (Freehills, 2016).21 The government also noted a rule that the making and unmaking of treaties is within the competence of the government (Supreme Court, 2017, p.84)22The case was debated in the High Court for several weeks until the High Court delivered its verdict on 3 November 2016. The High Court ruled in favour of Miller the government had to obtain parliamentary authority to trigger Article 50. The High Court had agreed with Millers arguments about the principle of parliamentary sovereignty (Supreme Court, 2017).23 The court explained that because of parliamentary sovereignty, only Parliament could repeal the European Communities Act. This is because only Parliament can repeal an Act of Parliament. The High Court also explained that Article 50 would nullify several rights of UK citizens (Supreme Court, 2017).24 These rights included the right of UK citizens to live and work freely in other EU countries, and the right to 20 days paid holiday under the Working Time Directive 2003. Parliament put these rights in place when it passed the European Communities Act in 1972. The High Court also ruled against the governments right to use the royal prerogativ e (Supreme Court, 2017).25 To explain why, the High Court cited the case of Burmah Oil Co (Burma Trading) Ltd v Lord Advocate 1965 AC 75, 101. This case involved use of the royal prerogative. Lord Reid, dismissed the royal prerogative as a relic of a past age (House of Lords, 1965, p.101).26 Lord Reid also explained that the royal prerogative is only available for a case not covered by statute (p.101).27 Typically, the royal prerogative is only for situations such as declaring war, dissolving parliament and governing colonies (Wade, 1961).28 So, in Millers case, the High Court explained that a royal prerogative was inappropriate for triggering Brexit. Therefore, the government did not have the power to trigger Article 50 without Parliaments approval.The government was unhappy with the High Courts decision and chose to appeal it, and as a result the case went to the Supreme Court. Ultimately, the Supreme Court dismissed the governments appeal, citing the same reason as the High Court (Supreme Court, 2017).29 Essentially, the court explained, the government in 1972 needed Parliaments approval to sign the 1972 Accession Treaty. This meant that present-day government also needed Parliaments approval to repeal this treaty (Supreme Court, 2017).30 Of course, those in the Leave camp were outraged with the High Courts decision. Like Theresa May, they believed that Parliament was attempting to obstruct the progression of Brexit. A Ukip donor accused the High Court of declaring war on British democracy (Maguire, 2016).31 In reality, however, this was not the case the High Court was merely upholding the British constitution as intended, by honouring the principle of parliamentary sovereignty (Weale, 2017)32 and following the Rule of Law.Importance of the Rule of Law.On 29March 2017, the Prime Minister wrote to the President of the European Councilto notify the European Council of the United Kingdoms intention to leave theEuropean Unit and the triggering of Article 50 of the Treaty. Brexit is nolonger a hypothetical question. It is a concrete fact it is happening. An issue that has beenbrought to the front is the belief that the Government has the power, andright, to act on Brexit without Parliaments involvement. This is even moretroubling as the very constitution is built upon Parliamentary sovereignty. Theissue of human rights comes up as it can be dangerous, in a country where thelegislature is mostly under the control of the executive, to leave it solely up toa sovereign Parliament withan absent constitution. If the Parliament can be avoided altogether, this can lead to an evenworse situation overall and so highlights how important it was for theSupreme Court in Miller tostand up for and defend the power of Parliament over the executive.Brexit is one of the mostinfluential and far-reaching changes to the international social and politicallandscapes today. Brexit will shape Britain, and the international community,for years to come. It is for th is reason that it is undeniable that this processshould be founded in the rule of law. To comprehend the importance of the ruleof law we must give it a clear definition. A well-known definition is that ofLord Bingham that all persons and authorities in the State, whether publicor private, should be bound by and be entitled to the benefit of all lawspublicly made, taking effect (generally) in the future and publiclyadministered in the courts. The Venice Commission has identified the following8 components of the rule of law (1) Accessibility of the law (that it beintelligible, clear and predictable) (2) Questions of legal right should benormally decided by law and not discretion (3) Equality before the law (4)Power must be exercised lawfully, fairly and reasonably (5) Human rights mustbe protected (6) Means must be provided to resolve disputes without undue costor delay (7) Trials must be fair, and (8) Compliance by the state with itsobligations in international law as well as in nati onal law. The importance ofthe rule of law is recognised in multiple international documents. For example,the preamble to the UN Declaration of Human Rights notes the importance of therule of law in protecting human rights. The Treaty on European Union alsocouples the rule of law and respect for human rights. It is this human rightselement that the remained of this short essay will focus on. Brexit will reformthe social landscape of Britain and Europe. It is of paramount importance thatthe rule of law is respected in this reformation to ensure that fundamentalrights, particularly those of minorities and vulnerable individuals, continueto be respected. This is especially true given that there has been much debateas to whether the Brexit vote was fuelled by xenophobia and racism. Researchhas shown that there was an increase in support for far-right groups during theBrexit campaign and following the murder of Jo Cox. There has also been analleged escalation in hate crime targeting migr ant communities as well anincrease in anti-immigration rhetoric. The Brexit vote, coupled with Trump, andthe rise of the far-right, summons fears surrounding the polarization ofpolitics and the creeping rise of extremism. With this in mind, it is quitechilling to consider Lord Binghams thoughts on a system which is not foundedon the rule of law The hallmark of a regime which flouts the rule of law are,alas, all too familiar the midnight knock on the door, the suddendisappearance, the show trial, the subjection of prisoners to geneticexperiments, the confession extracted by torture, the gulag and theconcentration camp, the gas chamber, the practice of genocide and ethniccleansing, the waging of aggressive wars. In a time when internationalpolitics is becoming increasingly unclear and strained and communities arefraught with increased fear and racial tensions, now more than ever, the ruleof law and the importance of Parliamentary Sovereignty must be respected. Asnoted by the Prime Min ister, the task before the British nation is momentousbut it should not be insurmountable. Britain post-Brexit has an unclear futureand an undefined path. By adhering to the rule of law, the certainty, stabilityand protection that it provides will ensure that this difficult task isnegotiated with the utmost respect for all peoples and their inalienable humanrights.3. The European Union (Notification of Withdrawal) Act 2017Given that the Supreme Court had dismissed the governments appeal, the government now needed Parliaments approval to trigger Article 50. In order to receive this approval, the government introduced a new bill in Parliament. This bill was called the European Union (Notification of Withdrawal) Act 2017.Essentially, this bill would give Theresa May the power to trigger Article 50. However, Parliament had the power to reject the bill if it felt appropriate. This was again because of parliamentary sovereignty (Weale, 2017).33 Despite that most voters voted Leave in the referendum, this result was not legally binding and Parliament could ignore the referendum result. The principle of parliamentary sovereignty means that the ultimate power rests with Parliament, not the public nor the results of referendums. The public only have the power to elect MPs, and once elected, MPs can go against the wishes of their constituents and make their own decisions if they want to. MPs can even go against a referendum result, despite that this might cause great anger with the British public. As Dicey stated, the electors can in the long run always enforce their will (Dicey, 1915).34 However, all three decision making bodies of Parliament the Queen, the House of Lords and the House of Commons approved the Notification of Withdrawal Act (BBC, 2017).35 The Queen gave the final green flag on 16 March 2017. This gave the Prime Minister the power trigger to Article 50 and inform the EU of the UKs withdrawal. The government officially triggered Article 50 on 29 March 20 17, when a UK envoy delivered a letter of withdrawal to the President of the European Council (BBC, 2017).36 The issue of parliamentary sovereignty then took a back seat as the UK began exit negotiations with the EU. Of the 170,000statutory instruments that have been sent to Parliament in the last 65 years,only seventeen have been rejected, and any substantive debate over individualinstruments is a rare occurrence. Responsibility has been delegated forregulation both to the government and the European Union. For this reason,possibly up to sixty per cent of UK law may be derived from EU law in some way.Furthermore, for many years, legislative and technical expertise in thepertinent areas have again been delegated to Brussels. This leaves domesticcivil servants under prepared to handle the of important decisions that willneed to be made in the coming years. David Allen Greens analysis is difficultto refute under the cloak of the referendum result there will be a power grabby Whitehall from Westminster. Those rejoicing at taking back control shouldbe careful what they wish for. The executive is, as usual, wanting to takecontrol away from Parliament.On manyoccasions, it has been asserted that because the people have spoken throughthe referendum, it gives the executive the right to push onward without theconsent of Parliament. On many occasions, it has been asserted that because thepeople have spoken through the referendum, it gives the executive the rightto push onward without the consent of Parliament. Doesthis mean that the claims of direct democracy, in the form of the referendum,trump the claims of Parliamentary representative democracy, with theparadoxical effect of giving more power to the executive? The greater part have affirmedthat referenda are in and of themselves a product of Parliamentary authority and must accordingly rely on thestatute which enables them. The 2015 EU referendum Act only called for the referendumto take place, without establishing ho w to approach it or the potentialconsequences. Where,as in this case, implementation of a referendum result requires a change in thelaw of the land, and statute has not provided for that change, the change inthe law must be made in the only way in which the UK constitution permits,namely through Parliamentary legislation.Theactual political importance of a referendum is not subverted however. What isdoes assert is the basic dogma that, in a democracy, the people can speakthrough their representatives in Parliament. Nevertheless,direct democracy cannot be operationalised by giving undiluted power to theexecutive.4. Conclusion This paper has discussed parliamentary sovereignty in the UK in the wake ofBrexit. First, Section 1 introduced the concept of parliamentary sovereignty in the UK. This sectionexplained that parliamentary sovereignty goes back to the 17th century, whenthe courts first enshrined the principle in the Bill of Rights. The sectionalso drew attention to the rule that o nly Parliament can undo Acts of Parliament.I then discussed the Miller case in Section 2. In this case, members of the public argued that the governmentrequired Parliaments approval to leave the EU. The courts decided in favour ofMillers side that explained that Parliament was needed to trigger to Article50 due to parliamentary sovereignty. The decision was controversial because some peoplesaw it as an attempt to subvert the referendum result. Finally, Section 3discussed the European Union Act 2017. This act that demonstrated the principleof parliamentary sovereignty. The government essentially asked Parliament forpermission to trigger Article 50, and Parliament agreed by passing the act. In conclusion, the principle of parliamentarysovereignty was tested inthe wake of Brexit. Ultimately however, courts respected the principle and gave Parliament the ultimate power over whether Britain shouldleave the EU. However, the future is still uncertain, as no-one yet knows whatBrexit will lo ok like. Perhaps a future Parliament will reverse the Brexitdecision. After all, parliamentary sovereignty gives future Parliaments theright to reverse the decisions of previous Parliaments. What needs to be addressed is the potential consequneces that thereferendum may have on Palimentary sovernety and represesentitivedemocracy throughout the UK. For thisreason, Parliment needs to continue to be a central part of the process despiteany predetermined preferences from the Government itself. Parliamentary sovereignty must remain intact as, for the many reasons stated, it is anintegral part of the United Kingdomsconstitution, because its deliberate and representative functions and ability to holdthe executive to account are defining features of the United Kingdoms enduringconstitution.5. ReferencesBarber, N.W., 2011. Theafterlife of Parliamentary sovereignty. International Journal ofConstitutional Law, 9(1), pp.144154.Barnett, H., 2017. Constitutional and administrative law,Taylor & Fr ancis.BBC, 2017. BBC News website. Available athttp//www.bbc.com/news Accessed July 14, 2017.Bradley, A., 2011. The Sovereignty of ParliamentForm orSubstance? The Changing Constitution, 23, pp.5456.Dicey, A.V., 1915. Introduction to the Study of the Law ofthe Constitution 8th ed., Liberty Classics.EU, 2007. Treaty on European Union,Freehills, H.S., 2016. Judicial review litigation over thecorrect constitutional process for triggering Article 50 TEU. Lexology.Available athttp//www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=f43e102f-ea09-4449-b781-a35ecfe628feAccessed July 13, 2017.Goldsworthy, J., 2010. Parliamentary sovereigntycontemporary debates, Cambridge University Press.House of Lords, 1965. Burmah Oil Co (Burma Trading) Ltd vLord Advocate AC 75,House of Lords, 1610. Proclamations, Case of 1610 EWHCKB J22, Available at http//www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWHC/KB/1610/J22.html.Maguire, P., 2016. Seizing our sovereignty or declaring waron democracy split view on judges ruling. The Guardian. Av ailable athttps//www.theguardian.com/politics/2016/nov/06/brexit-this-is-what-sovereignty-looks-likeimg-1Accessed July 13, 2017.Pannick, D., 2016. Why giving notice of withdrawal from theEU requires act of parliament. The Times. Available athttps//www.thetimes.co.uk/article/c8985886-3df9-11e6-a28b-4ed6c4bdada3.Parliament of England, 1689. English Bill of Rights,Supreme Court, 2016. Miller v. Secretary of State forExiting the European Union Written case for Mr George Birnie & Others(The Expat Interveners), Available athttp//www.croftsolicitors.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/139459-UKSC-2016-0196-Skeleton-for-Expat-Interveners-final-written-case-2.pdf.Supreme Court, 2017. Miller v Secretary of State forExiting the European Union, London. Available athttps//www.supremecourt.uk/cases/docs/uksc-2016-0196-judgment.pdf.Wade, W., 1961. Administrative Law, London OxfordUniversity Press.Weale, A., 2017. The Democratic Duty to Oppose Brexit. ThePolitical Quarterly, 88(2), pp.170181.1 BBC2 Alb ert Weale, The Democratic Duty to Oppose Brexit (2017) The Political Quarterly 1773 Hilaire Barnett, Constitutional and administrative law (Taylor & Francis 2017)4 House of Lords, Case of 1610 EWHC KB J225 Jeffrey Goldsworthy, Parliamentary sovereignty contemporary debates (Cambridge University Press 2010)6 Parliament of England, English Bill of Rights7 Albert Dicey, Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution (8th edn, Liberty Classics 1915)8 Anthony Bradley, The Sovereignty of ParliamentForm or Substance? (2011) The Changing Constitution 549 Nicholas Barber, The afterlife of Parliamentary sovereignty (2011) International Journal of Constitutional Law 14910 Supreme Court, Miller v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union11 David Pannick, Why giving notice of withdrawal from the EU requires act of parliament12 EU, Treaty on European Union13 David Pannick, Why giving notice of withdrawal from the EU requires act of parliament14 BBC15 Herbert Smith Freehills, Jud icial review litigation over the correct constitutional process for triggering Article 50 TEU16 BBC17 Albert Weale, The Democratic Duty to Oppose Brexit (2017) The Political Quarterly 18018 Supreme Court, Miller v. Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union Written case for Mr George Birnie & Others (The Expat Interveners) 2119 Supreme Court, Miller v. Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union Written case for Mr George Birnie & Others (The Expat Interveners)20 Albert Weale, The Democratic Duty to Oppose Brexit (2017) The Political Quarterly 18021 Herbert Smith Freehills, Judicial review litigation over the correct constitutional process for triggering Article 50 TEU22 Supreme Court, Miller v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union 8423 Supreme Court, Miller v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union 8424 Supreme Court, Miller v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union 8425 Supreme Court, Miller v Secretary of State for Exiting the Europe an Union 8526 House of Lords, Burmah Oil Co (Burma Trading) Ltd v Lord Advocate AC 75 10127 House of Lords, Burmah Oil Co (Burma Trading) Ltd v Lord Advocate AC 75 10128 William Wade, Administrative Law (Oxford University Press 1961)29 Supreme Court, Miller v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union30 Supreme Court, Miller v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union31 Patrick Maguire, Seizing our sovereignty or declaring war on democracy split view on judges ruling32 Albert Weale, The Democratic Duty to Oppose Brexit (2017) The Political Quarterly 17433 Albert Weale, The Democratic Duty to Oppose Brexit (2017) The Political Quarterly 17434 Albert Dicey, Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution (8th edn, Liberty Classics 1915)35 BBC36 BBC

Saturday, March 30, 2019

How Come Hybrid Car Is Used In Malaysia Marketing Essay

How Come interbreedingisation gondola Is Used In Malaysia market EssayIntroduction intercrossed elevator gondola is all the rage nowadays, save lots take a shit mistaken the crisscross for a solar auto or an galvanising simple machine. By definition, a intercrossed machine is an machine that substantiate one or to a greater extent than proponent source, for example an voltaic move, battery and sack cells 1.To many surprise, the Hybrid rail railroad motorcar technologies was developed during the 1900s .In fact, the inaugural working crossbreeding car mapd a petrol locomotive rail focussing locomotive, to billet the rotation of the dynamo at a constant speed, to charged up the accumulators. It was created by Ferdinand Porsche, the founder of Porsche 2.Before the increase of the global can expenditure 3, crossbred car is s bungholetily one of the cars that ar displayed during auto show as the car of the emerging. The demand grows and comparable a snowball effect in conjunction of the increase of aw arness in Malaysian society on preserving the environment with the Go green go 4.In the modern crossbredisationizing, it is the combi rural area of a schematicinternal combustion railway locomotive( grouch)propulsion clay and an galvanizingalpropulsion trunk. To enhance it further, galvanising force playtrain is bring ined to increase readiness, other efficiency-improving technologies which is added is theregenerative braking, where the fomites energizing thrust is converted into galvanising car nothing to recharge the battery, unlike ceremonious brakes that waste it as it dissipate heat. Some other loanblend engineering science uses their internal combustion engine as a labor reference to generate electricity by spinning an galvanising generator 5. This process has two functions which ar to power the car or recharge their batteries.Many crossings have a similarities which is the start-stop constituti on. The ICE is close up down during inactive condition and restart again when the intercrossed is miserable reduce drained emissionsbyshutting downtheICEatidleand restarting it when needed, so this will produce less emission comp atomic number 18d to the normal gasoline ply car. A crisscross-electric produces less emission from itsICEthan a comparably-sized gasoline car. In other words, it increase efficiency and polish less fuel.Types of Hybrid CarThere argon 4 terms that atomic number 18 used to line Hybrid carsFull crossbredIt is overly known as a strong crossizing. It is a versatile vehicle that can run with any the engine, or just the batteries, or even the combination of both. For example the Hybrid Synergy Drive byToyota Prius,Ford Escape Hybrid, andFord spinal fusion Hybridare cars that are use this technology. However at that place are downsides to it, as these cars can run on battery power totally at that placefrom it need a heights capacity battery 6. thank to advance technology, the full hybridization havs a function that allow substance abuser much selection in choosing the power source of the car, either via the galvanising power or mechanical.Mild hybridIt is as well known as a hollow hybrid. Different to the full hybrid, a mild hybrid require both electrical and mechanical engine as the electrical power source cant sustain enough energy to power the vehicle. It plainly distinctions around of the technology of the full hybrid for example greater fuel efficiency. A mild hybrid can be metaphorical describe as conventional vehicle with the start-stop system 7.Power assistant hybridsThe main working as well asl is the ICE. The ICE is used as a primary power source, to increase the torque of the electrical motor that is machine-accessible to the powertrain. The electric motor is fit(p) in between the engine and transmission, which make fors during the engine turned over and also when the driver accelerates 8.Pl ug-in hybridIt is a hybrid electric vehicle withrechargeable batteries. The battery can be recharge when connected to an external power source. A plug in hybrid also share similar characteristic as other hybrids 9. It has more than electrical capacity contrastd to a mild hybrid and uses combustion engine as a spare when the batteries are issue.How Hybrid Cars WorkWhen you take a leak into a hybrid car, youll emphatically feel shock and at the resembling time impress on the quietness of the cars engine. The two most usual hybrid cars (Toyota and Ford) use the technology called internal combustion engine (ICE) 10. ICE will start operating when the car is started and then it will shut down once the car is warmed up. This process besides takes a mulct period of time. When the ICE is off, the car will operate using the electric motor.The tot of power to draw from ICE and pull from the cars electric motor depends mainly on how fast is the driving speed. The cars computer is in charge of determining this. The cars dashboard will show the driver when is the electric assist is working.Hybrid cars are classified into various types. They are the twin hybrid such as Ford Escape Hybrid, mid consort hybrid such as Honda Insight and power-split series-parallel hybrid such as Toyota Prius 10. There are also Plug-in hybrid electrical vehicle such as Chev business officet Volt and also Fuel cell, electric hybrid such as Chev component partt Equinox 11. All of these use different types of technology to grasp the homogeneous motive which is to be an environmental friendly vehicle.There are 5 main steps taken to achieve hybridization 12. Firstly, the idle-off force which acts like a switch of a refrigerator. This switch will automatically turn off when the refrigerators door is closed. By using the same concept, this feature will off the vehicles gasoline engine when the car is in smooth 11,12 . With this, no fuel will be suck upd. This feature will also turn on the engine using a really short interval of time when the car is approximately to move. However, this process consumes large amount of power if equate with conventional vehicles.Secondly, the regenerative braking which uses the electric motor to stop the car. During this process, the electric motor acts as a generator 11,12. It recovers part of the kinetic energy generated when the car is moving convert them into electric energy. This electric energy is introduced in the battery so that it can later be use to softened down or even stop the car. This mode acting comes with hardly a(prenominal) disadvantages which are the vehicle must have a large electric motor which operates with postgraduate voltage so that it can capture the breaking energy efficiently and a large battery pack is needed to store the energy. However, this method can care to reduce the consumption of fuel of the vehicle.Thirdly, the power assist and engine downsizing method which truly fulfills the defi nition of hybrid vehicle 11, 12. The general definition of hybrid vehicle is is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to move the vehicle. Hybrid vehicle uses electric motor and gasoline engine to move 15. This method actually reduces the gasoline engine demands. Because of this, a smaller size engine can be used and at the same time producing the same outcome as the normal size engine 13.The fourth method is the electric-only-drive technology which let the vehicle move using solely the electric motor and battery pack 12. With this, the electric side of the dual system can be fully utilized. This is the main reason wherefore the hybrid vehicle can be operated in such low hoo-hah condition. This method is absorbed during low speed and the starting of the engine. Once the car reaches high speed, the engine will take over.Lastly is the b course battery-electric range which is also the final level of hybridization 12, 14. This is a method where the motors capacity i s extended by recharging its battery using a clean energy power grid such as plug in. With this method it is mathematical for the vehicle to operate by using only the battery-electric up to 30 to speed of light km. this is unquestionably a greener method. This methods performance plainly depends on how often the owner plugs in. to a higher place are the brief explanations of the operation of hybrid vehicle. Overall, hybrid technology is by all odds a more environmental friendly technology 16.How come hybrid car is hardly used in MalaysiaThe Hybrids, a car that consume a tiny bit of fuel and uses both battery and fogey fuel as power source, with an everlasting battery, seems to be very winning as gasoline harms shoot up past RM10.00 a gal mark. The hybrid produce less uponful nose candy paper gas thence it pollute less with 2 power source it also consume less fuel, and so it gives us the feel vertical factor. But is it just too good to be true if soul if you are exclus ively trying to save money? Not yet. 17However the Hybrids have a misconception that it is the way to save fuel, in fact its the opposite. It is likely that we could never deject back our investment in the hybrid even if compared it with a SUV with high fuel consumption rate. Currently, is cheaper to get a smaller car electionly than the hybrid at a high price. People have been loath to buy hybrid, especially because there are few reasons that show how ofttimes the new technologies will terms in the long run which are servicing, battery life, etc. 18In addition, the higher purchase price real does scare many spate off. If you were to compare a Toyota Corolla with a Toyota Prius, for example, some interesting figures come to light. The difference in price between the cars is about RM 19707.79. You can fill a lot of petrol for that affable of money. But how does the difference work out? There are reasons wherefore hybrid cars are valuable. The Toyota Prius has become the t rademark or a emblematical car for those who are very passionate about preserving the environment. They willing to go the pleonastic mile or in this case pay the extra dollar to prove how concern they are towards the environment. Unfortunately, if we view it in a more detail manner, the Prius is one of the main culprit of pollution the in United State. The pollution cause by a Prius is greater than a Hummer, a vehicle that most Prius owner sees as the devil.Before resolve the hybrid and entering its dark side, we must understand the working mechanism of the hybrid. Thus we take Toyota Prius for example as it is the best selling hybrid car in the market. The Prius is powered by two engines a ensample 76 horsepower, 1.5-liter gas engine that is used in average conventional car and a battery- powered engine that produces and output of 67 horsepower and a 295ft/lbs of torque, below 2000 revolutions per minute. The Toyota Synergy Drive system, the system which is installed in Toyotas hybrid to regulate its start-stop system, propels the car from idle up to 50km/h. It produce less efficiency as more energy are consume to get a car moving from idle position rather than a moving car as inertia plays a major role. Thus the start-stop system requires more fossil fuel to be burned. Another feature of the Prius is the rechargeable battery, which is recharge when break is applied and when the car is running above 50km/h as it would switch to fossil fuel power source. Thus it seems to be an ideal efficient car, right? 18Sadly no if we put the create process of a Prius under the microscope, we can say that it would bring more harm than the Hummer. This is because the main component in the battery pack of the Prius is make of nickel, which will cost 3 times more damage than a Hummer towards the environment. The nickel place in Ontario, Canada is dubbed as the dead order as it damages all the environment surrounding it. The plant is located miles away from civilization as it is hazardous to living thing collect to the emission of sulfur dioxide. Sadly, Toyota acquire 1000 ton of nickel from the plant to generate the battery pack for its Prius.The acid rain around Sudbury was so poorly it destroyed all the plants and the soil slid down off the hillside, verbalize Canadian Greenpeace energy-coordinator David Martin during an interview with Mail, a British-based newspaper.However, there are more bad news as the nickel from the plant in Canada are shipped to its refinery crossways Europe and to China to transform the nickel into nickel foam , and eventually end up in Japan, to complete its transition into a battery. This transatlantic journey across the world would defy the Prius label as an environmental friendly car as the production of its battery itself brings more harm than producing a conventional car. 18Through a study by CNW merchandise called Dust to Dust, find that the total combined energy is taken from all the material to build the c ar and its expected life. The Prius costs an average of RM5.20 per km for driven over a life-time of 150,000 kilometer which is the expected lifetime of a hybrid. This is compared to the Hummer, the Prius nemesis that only cost Rm 3.11 per kilometer with expected lifetime of 450,000 kilometer. This means that the Hummer is 3 times for efficient than the Prius. 18The political relation role and public cognisantnessThe administration plays a major role in shaping up the nation according to famous Chinese philosopher Confucius. Malaysia is promontory towards being a developed nation by the year 2020, thus a lot of policies are been implemented inline of our nations goal to be a develop inelegant in our own mould, without regarding the peoples interest at heart. mavin of the main giving medication policies is the National Green Technology Policy . The locate for this policy is to tackle the current global warming issues by lessens the carbon emission without neglecting develop ment and preserving the ecosystem 19. This is in line with United Nation humor Change Conference where Malaysia pledges to cut down carbon emission by 40 % 20.This afford by the government have a domino effect on the public, thus creating a greater cognizantness in the country. This is further justified by various campaigns being launch across the nation to further educate and also implement the policy. One of the active campaign that was launch is the No plastic bag day that been launch by the Penang and Selangor state government 21. By this policy, consumers are charge 20 centime for each plastic bag on every Saturday. This shows that even government with different political agenda could come together and check out that it is grave to create awareness in this country. Cooperate giant like McDonalds too doing their part in the No plastic bag day 22.With government policy implemented, and the increase of awareness among Malaysian on the importance of preserving the environment , the hereafter(a) looks good for hybrid cars. Although hybrid technology is not new and the sign response from Malaysian on hybrid car have been behind 23. This is mainly due to high price of the car according a valuate conducted by Bernama 24. However, this trouble has been eradicated during the 2009 national budget 25. With the decrease of 100% on imported tax and 50 % on excite art on hybrid cars 25. This certainly would play a significant role in slashing the price of a hybrid to make it more affordable and at the same time it would create more alternative for drivers as the prices of the a hybrid car are now more competitive with the usual conventional fossil fuel powered car. To add to this effort, local anaesthetic automaker, Proton has announced its plan to move into hybrid technology. Proton is going to launch its concept of a hybrid car with enhancement by its subsidiary Lotus, a t the Geneva Motorshow 26, highlighted their seriousness in developing hybrid car. This would translate to brighter future for hybrid car in the country.ConclusionIt is up for debate if the hybrid will bring more harm 18 or will bring good 19 to mankind. The future of hybrid in our country however is looking good, although currently only one type of hybrid is on the market, the Honda Civic hybrid 30. It will certainly gain momentum in a matter of time, as the younger contemporariess are more environmental conscious, with their participation on environmental awareness activities like the No Plastic bag day 22.It is a very encouraging trend, and hopefully the younger generation would implement it permanently rather than just a trend. This is important as the younger generations today are more hire in shaping up their future. Although the current price of the hybrid is out of the question for a peanut size salary of a good graduate, but the potential of a more affordable hybrid could be realize with the cooperation of the ASEAN government in implementing the AFTA (ASEAN free trade agreement) which could see the price of cars soaring down, especially the joting manufacturer of hybrid, Toyota is based in Thailand. condescension this, we also should not forgetting the effort made by our own local car manufacturer, Proton, who are currently developing their own hybrid with their subsidiary Lotus 26.With the potential customers, the young one and also the old generation who are currently riding the wave of environmental awareness, are dying(predicate) to get their hand on their own hybrid, and the relentless effort by local and international carmaker to further enhance the hybrid, adding to the fact of the government effort to promote and cutting the red tape for a greener Malaysia. It is a simple matter of a supply and demand. Thus, there are only one way for the future of hybrid cars in Malaysia, which is up.Analysis on SurveyThe survey we have conducted on the Future of hybrid car in Malaysia at http//www. surveymonkey.com/s/3YWCM3P. We ha ve set 8 questions for the survey, with 4 of the questions are multiple choice, 2 rating based questions and 2 talks/feedback type of questions. From the 18 respondent we received, it paints a clear picture of how the future of the hybrid car is looking for our country.Which of these are hybrid car?From the outcomes of this survey, it can be conclude that most Malaysian know what is hybrid car in general, with 77.8% of them know the Toyota Prius is one of the top selling hybrid in the market. With this, we can deduct that most Malaysian actually has the knowledge of the hybrid car model in the market. Honda Jazz hybrid will only be launched this coming autumn in Japan (in the range from October to November) 27. Honda opinionated to launch this Jazz Hybrid is because of the high fuel demand by the consumers.Is there any difference between a hybrid car and an electric car?From the data collected above, we found that the public are aware of the difference between a hybrid and an elect ric car, although there are a lot of misconception that both a hybrid and an electric car is similar, but it does not affect our respondent who majority agree there are difference between a hybrid and an electric car with 88.9% of them agrees.Actually, both the electric car and hybrid car uses the technology that aim to decrease the fuel consumption. The main difference between electric car and hybrid car is that the electric car is 100% electric whereas the hybrid car uses both fuel and electric power to operate. The space that can be travelled by an electric car totally depends on the amount of time that the car is plugged in and charged. This has delimit the distance that can be travelled by the electric car. On the other hand, hybrid car can definitely travel a farther distance due to the gasoline power 28.In your opinion, why are hybrid car even so rare on the road in Malaysia?It seems that price is the main barrier, for the need of hybrid cars in the country. Factors like h igh imported taxes play a role to make the hybrid car less affordable to the general public. For example a Prius cost almost the price of a Toyota Camry. Thus those who could afford it would rather opt for a more luxurious car. Other major factor is the lack of expertise in the country for maintenance of the car. A conventional car could be sent to an average workshop for maintenance, but a hybrid with its complex system, only authorized dealer could fix any task that could occur. In other words it would increase the cost for drivers.It is indeed that the price of a hybrid car is much more expensive than a conventional car. As an example, conventional Honda Civic 1.8 costs around RM113k 29 whereas the hybrid type costs around RM130k 30. This shows a difference of RM17k in price. This is why the price gives the deepest impact in why consumers choose to drive a conventional car.Do you think hybrid car could reduce the carbon emission?From the result, we realized that most people are also aware of the impact a hybrid car on the environment with 88.9% of them agree it could curb the carbon emission, and the advantage of the hybrid as we quote from the survey A hybrid would reduce fossil fuel consumption thus frugality the environment. But the main drawback is the price of the fuel.It is obvious that hybrid car has the ability to reduce the carbon emission. This also depends on the car model. A Toyota Prius only emits 104g/km carbon dioxide which is a 55% reduction compare with a conventional car of the same class 31.If the price of a hybrid car is as expensive as an ordinary car, would you flip it?In question 3, we found out that the main drawback of the hybrid car is the price. From the result of this question, the answer in question 3 is justified. It is shown that 61.1% of people would definitely switch to a hybrid car if its price is affordable. However, there are people who still want to stick with the conventional car. I remember that this group of peop le would prefer a more powerful car.So far, hybrid car model is still the family car type. It is less possible to drive a hybrid car and have the thrill of velocity or dragging at the same time. The main purpose of hybrid car is to be more environmental friendly. Excessive speeding would lead to high carbon emission. Because of this, the chance of having a high cubic curium (cc) hybrid car model is lesser.How well do you know about hybrid car?From the result obtained, it is obvious that most people have brief idea on hybrid car. This is a very good start for Malaysian to consider driving a hybrid car. However, there are still a small group of people do not have any idea on hybrid car. This problem can be solved if the car manufacturers promote hybrid car more frequently. We believe that if there are more people aware of the advantages of driving a hybrid car, the future of hybrid car in Malaysia would be brighter.Do you know any advantage of the hybrid compare to a normal fossil fu el car?1.not very clear2.Petrol consumption is better3.it can save fuel when the the rpm is under some certain standards i guess4.It use less fuel (better utilization of petrol)5.It reduces consumption of fossil fuel, thus saving the environment6.save fuelbla blabla bla7.it will helps to green the earth8.Yes, Its more environment-friendly.9.Less carbon dioxide emission10.less CO2The above are the responds given by the public. Most of them agree that the hybrid the hybrid have an advantage over the conventional car. From their feedback, we can conclude that hybrid cars would help in conserving the environment, as it consume less petrol, emit less pestilential carbon gases, and it would create a greater fuel efficiency, as the car could be powered via electric source too, lowering the dependency on fossil fuel.Is Hybrid car a way forward to our future? please state reasons1.less pollution2.Yes,bcos its a treb3.Of cos. It indicates we can tardily not using fuel in transportation4.Yes . It saves the environment5.No, if possible, people should work towards full-electronic battery powered cars because if you want to save the environment, why do it halfheartedly.6.mayb,definitely7.Yes. To avoid global warming.8.Yes. We should preserve our environment for the future.9.Yes. new technologies10.yes.. petrol is expensiveMajority of our respondent would agree that the hybrid is the car of the future, although a few minorities are still skeptical about it. Their concern is the hybrid still needs the dependence on fossil fuel. Their preference is to create a full electric power car and also a few concerns about the chemical content inside the batteries used in the hybrid 18. On a brighter note, the majority are ecstatic and optimistic that the hybrid could play a role in preserving our future. They site that is a way to contribute to avoid global warming and to have greater fuel efficiency as the price of fuel is expensive.ReferencesRetrieved on 29 bunt 2010 from http//dic tionary.reference.com/browse/hybrid+carRetrieved on 29 edge 2010 from http//www.hybrid-cars-guide.com/hybrid-car-background.htmlRetrieved on 29 March 2010 from http//thestar.com.my/metro/story.asp? saddle=/2009/7/31/ underlying/4424155sec=centralRetrieved from on 29 March 2010 http//thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2009/8/29/merdeka/4582456sec=merdekaRetrieved from on 29 March 2010 http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hybrid_carRetrieved on 29 March 2010 from http//www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/hybridAnimation/fullhybrid/fullhybridoverview.htmlRetrieved on 29 March 2010 from http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mild_hybridRetrieved on 29 March 2010 from http//www.hybridcenter.org/hybrid-center-how-hybrid-cars-work-under-the-hood.htmlRetrieved on 29 March 2010 from http//www.calcars.org/vehicles.htmlRetrieved on third April 2010 from http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hybrid_electric_vehicleRetrieved on 3rd April 2010 from http//www.eartheasy.com/live_hybrid_cars.htmRetrieved on 3rd April 2010 from http//www.h ybridcenter.org/hybrid-center-how-hybrid-cars-work-under-the- hood.htmlRetrieved on 3rd April 2010 from http//auto.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car3.htmRetrieved on 3rd April 2010 from http//auto.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car1.htmRetrieved on 3rd April 2010 from http//auto.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car2.htmRetrieved on 3rd April 2010 from http//www.free-engineering.com/road-hybridwork.htmDes Toups. (2006). Hybrid cars Do they make sense for you? Moneycentral. Retrieved from http//moneycentral.msn.comHermie. (2009, 9 July). Hybrids- A DANGER to the environment Ecomoder. Retrieved from http//ecomodder.com/forumRetrieved on eighth April 2010 from http//www.csr-malaysia.org/news/malaysia/opportunities-new-green-businesses-20090724244/Retrieved on 8th April 2010 from http//thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2010/1/24/focus/5423934sec=focus.Retrieved on 8th April 2010 from http//thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2010/2/12/nation/5666253sec=nationRetrieved from http//thestar.com.my/news/story .asp?file=/2010/4/8/nation/6010041sec=nation on 8th April 2010Retrieved on 9th April 2010 from http//biz.thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2008/9/8/business/1952401sec=businessRetrieved on 9th April 2010 from http//kereta.info/why-hybrid-cars-are-getting-lukewarm-respone-in-malaysia/Retrieved on 9th April 2010 from http//thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2008/8/29/budget2009/20080829161149sec=budget2009.Retrieved on 9th April 2010 from http//biz.thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2010/3/2/business/5775010sec=businessRetrieved on 9th April 2010 from http//www.post1.net/lowem/entry/2010_honda_cr_z_hybrid_2010_honda_fit_jazz hybrid_models_confirmedRetrieved on 9th April 2010 from http//www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-difference-between-electric-cars-and-hybrid-cars.htmRetrieved from http//www.carstandard.com/blog/84/malaysia-car-price-list.html on 9th April 2010Retrieved on 9th April 2010 from http//paultan.org/2009/02/10/honda-civic-hybrid-gets-new-price-rm-129980/Retrieved on 9th A pril 2010 from http//greenliving.lovetoknow.com/Hybrid_Vehicle_EmissionsR Afroz et al., 2005, Willingness to Pay for atm Quality Improvements in Klang Valley Malaysia, American Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol 1 (3), pp. 194-201

Sainsburys: Strategies for Customer Retention

Sainsburys St localizegies for Customer RetentionCHAPTER (1)AbstractMy question reputation basic all(prenominal)y seeks to understand the priorities of customer in Sainsbury of picking of crossroads plot take a shitping. And Sainsburys private roads to constitute on their vernal(a) intersections with maintenance of their single come to the fore and reasonable honour to riposte best helpings to their loyal customers. My seek overly seeks to spunkylight the consumer deportment which makes them to withstand shouting Sainsburys. UK sell cunning place is the best example of matched food commercialise.Research need to understand the ware class which leads to quality of product and categorization of products, secondly the product value which examines pricing with diverse aspects in the UK market and specially in Sainsburys. And I am withal red to explore some(predicate) the failure strategies of the Sainsburys.I will conduct this research by the peer less(a) to one query with the senior manager of Sainsburys as well as in that location would be a deep research which will be taken out from the questionnaire with the customer of Sainsburys. stapleally the interview will view as me the basic seam of action of the marketing schema of the bracing product of Sainsburys and too it will identify the different products class and with their different values. Questionnaire from the customer will senior high schoollight the requirements and basic theme of the consumer that what they think, what they devise and how they choose.I shall also discuss the last both geezerhood of the Sainsburys progresses virtually the products because in past two social class Sainsbury has im prove their activities under the unsanded focal point.Introduction fall in f pasttdom is one of the some fast attach markets in fast sorrowful consumer goods in the atomic number 18a. Market opportunities ar relatively actually better than the separ ate countries. Resources and legal GOVT. policies argon precise reformative for the new entrants in the retail market even though the UK five dollar bill hundred retail merchants be enjoying about 85 portionage of the nevertheless market and rest of 2cl00 retailers be struggling for remaining market shares. And this mode or market competition encourages or forces the retailers to focus only the customer needs. This trend gives the opportunity to big retailers to make the huge supermarkets. That all the fast pitiable products include nourishment and noon nutriment for thought item, dwelling house appliances and much more(prenominal) under the same roof to fulfil the customer needs and these supermarkets proved more convenience for the consumers.In early 19 century in UK, the retail market had different shape which calls co-op agetive ordure where the multiple retailer or group of retailers comes under one management for working unitedly to sell their products in reason able value to their customers. This trend of co-operative movement started in UK by Rochdale, Lancashire in 1840 and later in north of Englands retailers. and this merging was only for the customers who purchased the products in wad. After Second World warfare when the economy of United fagotdom was rebuilding, that was the complete snip for the investors to invest in the different fields of business and retailers also made their positions. Like by and by four category of war end Marks Spencer granted their first while supermarket in 1948 wherefore(prenominal) Sainsburys opened in 1950, Tesco opened their first self service gunstock in 1954, Morison opened 1958 and ASDA opened first supermarket in 1963. The era of 1960, 70s, 80s was the time of expansion of these giants who later opened their supermarket with different sizes in all over the places in UK, made their stores more convenience and gave more reliable services to their customers. In todays fast pace d life nobody has time to go at individual shops for all the household needs and supermarkets has action this deficiency by providing their cigarette market all the products i.e., from grocery to face up-to-face care, and from children items to medicines and electronics, furniture, fresh items, meat, etc. etc. The handiness of all these items under one roof has various attractions which encourage a customer to visit in supermarkets.(www.tescopoly.org)(Raphael Moreau franchiseek.com)Supermarkets fork out one major advantage that customer come mentally prepared to make heavy shopping i.e., at l einsteinium the well-worn of one week household items so that he / she do non set about to come again and again for subtle items. As capital of the United Kingdom is one of most populated city in the world and casual expenses needs to be made by all(prenominal)one, in this way supermarkets are able to make large mountain of gross gross sales. Due to large home base of purchasing supermarkets are able to make different continues especially on the frequently moving items deal snacks, cheese, drinks, chocolates, bakery items, beers, wine, vegetables, fruits, meat, etc. etc. In this way consumers are tempted to make forced selling. Due to large sales volume the selling equals goes down which in turn enhances the boodle of the supermarkets.(Grahame Dowling tainting Behaviour)At the start of 2007 the UK retail market was worth about 128.2 zillion with the comprehensive increase of 4 percent later 2006. block off of 2007 that was report that there are about 99, 134 retail stores in the United Kingdom which contain the dispirited stores like Spar or Londies and also include the supermarkets like Tesco, Sainsbury etc. These all stores, grocers and supermarkets are expanding their businesses replete(p)ly as their target market is expanding which made the UK market best example of perfect competitive market.(www.igd.com)UK retail Market GrowthUK Grocery Mark et writ of execution(Source IGD Research 2007)As discussed about the supermarkets and different retailers it shows that the customers of UK have ample throw up of favorion of selection. In order to evaluate the customer selection of product is the firm it should mostly refer to the traditional forms of marketing as they can be observed in most companies inter topicly. In this context, the information of Aufreiter et al. (2000) showed that when traditional marketers think of organization, they mean structure distinct product, channel, and customer groups center on specific functional tasks, much(prenominal) as brand differentiation, customer segment management, and market research while functional managers play the diametric roles in these functionally focused customer groups, which are responsible for generating ideas and taking them to market.(Aufreiter, N., Lawyer, T., Lun, C. (2000)In a sense, customer selection of product is formulated in each case in accordance with th e needs of the particular connection except most all beta(p)ly with the conditions of the market. The confines of counselling the product is a good deal used in this case to show the involvement of entrepreneur in the trope and the application process of the customer satisfaction of specific product and the main targets of the marketing policies used by a specific organization. In this context, Welsh (2003) supported that this term can be defined as the proactive identification and exploitation of opportunities for attracting and retaining customers through groundbreaking approaches to risk management, option leveraging and value creation (Welsh, 2003, 5). On the other hand, it is necessary that firms internationally use the appropriate techniques of communication in accordance with the social and heathen conditions of the market involved. Regarding this issue, the study of Dobie et al. (2003) showed that marketing communications are an important subdivision of any produ ct as it is essential to inform potential and subsisting customers regarding product/service availability and application, and to persuade potential users to investigate, examine, and/or attempt the proffered product/ service.(Dobie, K., Grant, J., Megehee, C. (2003).After reviewing the different views of customer selection one could easily notify that in UK where about 10 percent of the whole country is not native can be a heterogeneous market where the product selection can be different and these the bulky unwashed have to cover by supermarkets to attract them by their native products with head ache food and grocery products. And this objective forces them to make new product lines in their stores.As I mentioned about the trend of supermarket in the UK and further on the collar top supermarkets are fol minoringTescoASDASainsburysThis is the recent research that Tesco has 31.5 percent of whole UK retail market share further on ASDA who has 16.7 percent as well as Sainsbury who covered the 16.3 percent market share. In 1980s and early 90s Sainsbury had the leadership of UK market how ever in 1995 Tesco leads with 17 percent market share with rapidly increasing following years. only when from past two years when the Sainsbury comes under new management with Justin King they increased well and fortune is this that could compete their rival ASDA and could regain on number two position in UK retail market. Sainsburys management is right away ameliorate under the new managerial structure and introducing the wide range of production their stores with different class and value. They increased their native range and new lines of something new which also include the food items which forethought their other countries customers who are living in UK.(news.bbc.co.uk)In 2005 Sainsbury also changed their slogan try something new today to introduce their wide range of new products to their loyal customers. As the Sainsbury is the UK third largest supermarket has in creased its like to like sale from last two years. And this method encourages them to deliver large number of products in their stores which is a contest and if they cant do so they can lower their branch rate as per their other competitors who are increasing significantly. Sainsbury also increased their non food products in the stores. They want to entertain their customer with their new product line including food and non food products. But the challenge is if their other rivals like ASDA and Tesco dont dispose down their non food products offers it can be a big misplace for Sainsbury. Sainsbury who has about 2.2 billion turnover per year has the fortune to increase it to 3.5 billion by 2011. Sainsbury also have smaller stores then Tesco and ASDA which they are grooming to increase their stores conterminous year as well as seeming to increase the senior management of their stores. As we know Sainsbury has the massive 136 years history in the UK market even though some of t he time likes 1995 when Tesco increased its market share till now which is incredible effort of Tesco. But from last two years as under new management they increased their number of stores with their new products.(The telegraph 27/03/2008)Sainsburys supermarket bowed stringed instrument is increasing their new product lines to fulfil the consumer requirement more customers are also do their shopping trend toward Sainsbury. Sainsbury is also managing the equipment casualty dodging to maintain their sustainability in the market where there other rivals like Tesco and ASDA have vast pricing strategies. New offers are flourishing rapidly in Sainsbury. As I mentioned that UK customer have large number of selection which gives customer freedom of choice thats make Sainsbury to do more efforts. Sainsbury categorise their products with different ideas, thoughts and according to needs of consumer. I will discuss about it in next chapter but some are following with there basic themes.Ta ste the deflexionBe good yourselfBasicorganicNon food itemsThese all Sainsburys categorize food products give the different consumers to different priorities like if we talk about the taste the difference products it covers those customers who come to Sainsbury to deprave the quality products with the reasonable price. Second is be good yourself which ever so keep remember their customer that they are eating low fat food which makes them more healthy and specially those customer who are diet conscious. third Sainsbury has a wide range of own manufactured brand called Basic which is key nation of the Sainsbury turnover. In basic products they promise their customer to give them good products in very low price as per other supermarkets doing. Forth Sainsbury has organic products which give the opportunity to their consumers to buy the products which are summarise artificial ingredients free. And Sainsbury has introduced organic products in the UK market first in 1985 and last me ntioned other retailers got fruit from this product base.(The telegraph 11/01/2008)(www.j-sainsburys.co.uk)It is recently been proclaimed by UK retail supermarket giant Sainsburys that their lolly increased to 488 one jillion gazillion pounds at 2007 which is 28 percent increased form last year. The declaration comes unspoiled a day after price rises leapt to three per cent, partly fuelled by improving grocery products prices. Chairman Philip Hampton verbalize This year has been mainly important for Sainsburys since it marked the achievement of the Making Sainsburys Great Again revival plan represent in October 2004 and we stimulated from a period of improvement to ontogenesis. start financial year Sainsburys also take over their target 2.5 billion to 2.7 billion. As for the competitive prices Sainsbury also increase their number of customer visit from 14 million to 16.5 million. And Sainsburys also going to distribute around 47 million pounds to their colleague this year w hich will come average 401 pounds to every worker.(The Metro UK, may 14th 2008)CHAPTER (2)History of SainsburysThe early years (1869-1940)Mr. earth-closet James and Marry Ann Sainsbury was the founder of Sainsburys in 1869. The first shop they open in London at Drury Lane. It was the small dairy shop as well as the cranial orbit where they open the shop was the poorest area but this shop becomes very popular in the local area as their high quality product in very low price as compared to others. This success encourages Sainsburys owners to open more shops in ring areas. In 1882 this short period James Sainsburys had four shops and also he was planning to expand his business in other areas. On the retardation they also made their own brand product. Sainsburys also opened its wide range products shop in Croydon which become familiar in very short period. Furthermore in 1890 and 1900 the Sainsburys branches increased from 16 to 48 in all over London as well they open the storehou se at Black friars which was near to wholesale markets.Era of World struggle IThe world was 1 led the Sainsbury to face the shortage of staff. in 1914 one third of the male staff left to join the build up forces. Women replace the men after getting the training from the school at Blackfriars. Company started to expand during the inter war era. Sainsburys expended in the suburbs of London like Luton, Cambridge, and St Albans. in 1939 there were 244 shops in the UK.Post War Era (1939-1969)This era was the most difficult for the Sainsburys as its assets were badly damaged by attack and few of them were used by the army as warehouse. This era was not only hard for the Sainsburys but for the British people. The acute shortage of food in June 1950 Sainsburys reopened its first store in Corydon from there Sainsburys started to boom again. In 1969s Sainsburys started to expand in the west and Midlands.Sainsburys Contemporary Image (1979-2000s)After the world war two, Sainsbury enter a ne w era of prosperity and exploitation till then the Sainsburys completed its age of a century. And it was still own by the founding family. angiotensin-converting enzyme of the major problem faces by the participation in early 1970s was the shortage of oil due to which the represent increased many faults. The increase be was overcome with the facilitate of bulk merchandizing decreasing per unit cost. The largest stores like one in Cambridge which was opened in1974 offered a wide Varity of product range. It further started to expand in north east England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Thus becoming a national symbol. Sainsburys innovated a commode of techniques and styles of retailing using various tools and technology like scanning, computerized stock pick up and sale base ordering system. Sainsburys was the pioneer which gave a new face to the retailing system for example by using computerizes, energy management, keep plant in store bakery, chillers and freezers. Th e product ranges got twice till 1994 representing the numerous range of product like produce fresh foods, salads, ready meals, decrease fat milk and different pillow slips of specially breads. Sainsburys was the first British market to mark the bewitching mess products and using the recycle martial for the write up products and the aircraft carrier bags.The profitability measures of Sainsbury are 1991 2002Sainsbury Profitability ratios19911992200020012002Total operating profit margin5.10%4.85%3.74%3.41%3.72%Group profit before tax margin4.70%4.62%3.33%2.98%3.44% engross even offable as a percentage of turnover0.50%0.31%0.41%0.41%0.27%Source http//www.bized.co.uk/compfact/ratios/profit_add6a.htmSainsburys maintain the profits in the years 2000 to 2002. In 1998 1999, the profits were better than year 2000. The shows that the profit slump is noticeable and was due to the management failure and high competition.Source http//www.bized.co.uk/compfact/ratios/profit_add6a.htmClear form the chart that Sainsburys lost its profit share in the year 2001 and 2002 and it dis maintaind many operations and it earned the tokenish profit in the year 2002 which started to decline from the year 1998.Today Sainsbury serves more than 16 million customers each week. it has 455 supermarkets and 301 convenience stores across UK. More then 148000 people work under the umbrella of Sainsburys. Sainsburys strongly believes in high quality products and low price. Following that Sainsburys decrease 8500 prices in 2006. Keeping in view the advanced customer concerns about the health (health conscious customers). It introduced the stray of health following the traffic light system, highlighted the ingredients and calories presented to customer. These days more then 2000 products has been labelled by the wheel of health.Sainsburys also contributes in charities and local confederation as well. It donated 70 million pounds to all primary and secondary schools with the help of its a ctive kids take the field using the clean-living employment products as a priority externalises its image as the strong supporter of poor deserve farmers through out he world. In2005 and 2006 Sainsburys staff donated around 9 million pounds in several of charities. Sainsburys also support the comic relief and sorts relief. Sainsbury is also committed towards the environment and does not support the use of plastic carrier bags, which are made of 33 percent recycle martial polished in most advanced recycling units. Sainsburys has lunched a lot of campaign to reuse the plastic bags. Such sort of activities has reduced the carbon release by 20 percent since the year 2000.At 14 May 2008 announcing the government issues of last financial year 2007 Justin King Chief Executive tell since then we have grown sales by 2.7 billion pounds, fast the target of 2.5 billion we said ourselves, and in march we reported our thirteenth consecutive quarter of like for like growth. I am also plea sed to be able to let you know that, we have reported an increase in profit of 28 percent, up to 488 million pounds for the year ending 22 March 2008, more then double the 238 million pounds we reported for the year ending March 2005.Research QuestionWhat makes the customers to opt the products in terms of class or value in the Sainsburys?This research will provide the essential key points of customer selection of products in terms of quality and price in Sainsburys.Aims and ObjectivesThe main aims and objectives of this research project are toAnalyze the customer priorities by quality, price and quantity while shopping in Sainsburys.Find the purpose of range of products in Sainsbury in terms of quality and price.Prices of the product as per other competitors.Marketing system of Sainsburys for their new products with different prices.Purpose of product categorization in Sainsburys.critically evaluate and make out the upgrading which could be introduced into Sainsburys based on the price and quality.Scrutinize the past activities to identify the areas of failure of their products by price and quality. personalized ObjectivesMy personal objectives areTo get aware from leading supermarkets marketing schema for their range of products and boost my international marketing edge.Secondly to complete my topic and go further for my MBA degree.CHAPTER (3)Literature ReviewPromotionThe retailers having more items and products conflux the customer needs and information called as full service retailers practical application every phase of the market segment and Operating such type of retailer service not to be an easy job to be done. Due to the high cost of staffing, higher number of goods including the fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) and slower moving items. Therefore the resulting of towering cost of the business. Hence the advancement of the product of such type of retailer like Sainsburys is highly problematic so as to increase the sale and profit margin. The m arketing progression can not be neglected. In this phase of increase competition, adopting such strategies can easily make a difference. A retailers most important decision depends upon the target market. One has to define and profile the target market before taking any decision. The retailer especially like the Sainsburys emphasises on the product admixture and procurement to comply with the target market demand. repugn of the product assortment leads to develop a product differentiation strategy which differentiates the seller or retailer or craftsmanship inr from the competitors on behalf of product. septet known possibilities of the product differentiation strategy areExclusive national brandprivate branded merchandiseDistinctive merchandise events confusion merchandiseNew merchandise firstMerchandize customizing serviceHighly targeting assortmentAlthough Sainsburys does not fall in all of such category and has not still adopt but the strategies like private branded merch andize, newest merchandise and targeted assortment have strongly been follow. Sainsbury can make a difference by product differentiation such as offer merchandise which has been successfully introduce by Harrodss of London which makes customer oriented/ tailored suits and further clothe accessories. Such type of customer assistance increases the customer satisfaction as well as customer confidence. Retailers like Sainsbury Tesco, ASDA Morison are improving there efficiency by forecasting and merchandizing for stock control, quadriceps femoris allocation and display. For ordering the goods, measuring the inventory and analyzing the sales. The supermarket chains have adopted there computers and scanners to manage there merchandize mix. Direct product profitability (DPP) is shortly being used to measure the cost of the product in store from the point of arrival till a customer buys it. Low volume products have normally low handling and keeping cost as compare to the high volume prod ucts which have high handling cost and therefore are less profitable. Thus they are kept in a low volume normally. This strategy has been successfully by the Sainsburys by keeping the more number of groceries and a less number of home ware items therefore Sainsbury makes a profit margin from the FMCG products.(Philip Kotler, Millennium Ed )Sainsbury fork out chainThe grant chain strategy of Sainsbury was lunched in tumble 2000. The supply chain strategy if Sainsbury is focused on managing all segments starting from logistics and distribution to the shelf of the store. The goal of the Sainsburys supply chain strategy in base on the following few principlesPaper lessStockless simplexAutomaticPrecise and accurateSainsbury emphasize at improved execution of instrument via reducing the cost improving the accessibility and availability, minimum loss and upper limit level of services. Development of such innovative processes is developing to provide most effective and efficient service with least cost, thus delivering the reduced cost and profit to the customer in aspect of price. Sainsburys replaced all of the warehouse management and data base management over a 3 year period time since year 2000.(www.sainsburys.co.uk)J Sainsbury chief executive Justin King announced the Recovery to growth at 14th may 2008. He said we have already celebrated our success in maturement our sales by 2.5 billion pounds but today we confirmed that we have achieved all of the target we set ourselves in our three year retrieval plan. Looking to the future we now need to put out this success so that we can achieve our new three year target, which we set out last May, of an extra 3.5 billion pounds of sales by March 2011. this is the next part of our, Making Sainsbury Great Again plan, where we will be focusing on moving from recovery to growth. Its another challenging target but I am confident that we will achieve it. We will continue to concentrate on the things that have helped us s ucceeded so far- great service and great availability to drive great sales. We will also continue to carefully manage our costs, so we can increase our profit. Store development will also be big focus for us, with our half of our stores undergoing plant and opening the hundred new convenience stores over the next three years. We will also be expanding our online operations to two hundred our stores. By March 2008 Sainsbury achieved 2.7 billion extra sales over the original target of 2.5 billion.(The Telegraph, May 18th 2008)He also declared 45 million pound to be distributed as bonus among 118000 colleagues this June. It is very clear argument of Justin King that the key to success is the great service and great availability which proved Sainsburys great again. Great service includes the customer service after sale services and customer convenience in the stores. Where as great availability covers the availability all of the products at all time making successful the supply chain of the Sainsburys. The higher sales are result of supply improvement since 2005. Sainsburys has been focusing to improve the stock availabilities by resolving power information technology issues and delivery problems which was affected by its bad supply chain earlier. In 2005 the sales increased 3.7 percent which latter on lifted up to 7.2 percent in late 2005. Justin King said our major focus on availability in beginning to show results with both colleagues and customer noticing improvement in store. Justin King always emphasizes on the availability in any aspect starting from improving themselves in terms of refurbishment and colleagues training.(www.bbc.co.uk)Supply Something New -Value and QualityFor the very begging Sainsbury has been struggling to provide the customer satisfaction via quality and price. Sainsbury has adopted a number of strategies regarding the concern for example Taste The Difference, Be heavy Your Self, Basic, Organic, special offers like Buy One Get One F ree, Buy Four Cheapest Free, Multi buy Price Offer, Buy One Get One Half Price and many more. Sainsbury does not only keep the concern with the customer but with the supplier as well. Sainsbury launched its new plan regarding the innovation in retail industry by introducing the supply something new scheme. intent was offered from 21 SEP 2007 and is offered to all sized food supplier. Scheme encourages the suppliers to offer the best they can offer to be shelved in Sainsburys. Kellys of Cornwall, Danby Dale Pie Company, Jack Scaife Bacon and erotic love Buns have been recently added on the list of Sainsburys products. The process is expeditious and reliable and takes only three months to complete. The successful applicants are approached by the supply chain team to transport the product from manufacturer to stores. The scheme has only been offered to small and medium size manufacturing companies so as to offer a minimal price to the end user depending upon the level of productivi ty of the producer for example cranberry, flap jack, and plain vanilla flap jack are offered at the price 2.59 pound and 3.39 pounds respectively. The scheme does not only reflects the innovative thought of the producer but the user himself because the scheme is valid for small and medium base firm only and it is only the buyer or journal customer/user who operates at such level.(http//www.supplysomethingnew.co.uk/index.asp?pageid=11)Sainsburys and Fare tradeThe seemly trade label was first defined four decades ago in 1988 by Max Havelarr used for a coffee from Mexico. basically fair trade is a strategy develops to minimize the poverty and growth for the developing and under developing countries. The fair trade was specially design for such formers who lake the access the world market possessing improved trade benefits. Sainsbury is the UK biggest fair trade retailer. The fair trade certify products are those which are bought from the marginalised small scale farmers and agricultu ral workers, keeping a non fixed minimum price that a buyer has to pay to the seller. It is the set price which covers the cost of the product. The fair trade price has the safety advantage to the farmers even if the price of the product falls below the market level. On the other hand if the market price higher then the fair trade prices the buyer has to pay the market price. Through this fair trade the buyers and sellers sign the long term trading relationship for a specific predefine grades of produce. The fair trade impartiality tells the end user advantage of the usage of the product and helps in effective promotion and identification of deserving quality products. Sales of Fair-trade certified products in the UKEstimated UK retail sales by value 1998-2007 ( million)Estimated percentage increases from 2006-2007Total sales 127% increase by volume and 72% by estimated retail valueTotal coffee 33% increase by volume and 24% by estimated retail valueTotal tea 21% increase by volum e and 24% by estimated retail value wine-coloured 47% increase by volume and 51% by estimated retail valueFlowers 71% increase by volume and 72% by estimated retail valueCotton 1,655% increase by volume and 658% by estimated retail valueThe volume of the fair trade products has been doubled betwixt year 2006 and 2007. according to the data, consumers spent 1.1 billion pounds on fair trade products in 2006.As an average Sainsburys sales around 10,00,000 fare trade bananas. Justin King said, by working together on this scale, the new gunstock will help to dramatically extend the benefits fare trade bring to pass to more farmers and worker in new areas, which have previously tune been fait trade accredited. Sainsbury has a land mark to converte all of his bananas to fair trade in July 2007. According to the s Sainsburys sells 1000 bananas a minute, 150 thousand a week and 700 million bananas a year and all of the bananas are fair trade. The sale of bananas have been increased by 5 percent (approximately 35 million bananas) since the Sainsburys has jumped to 100 percent fare trade bananas.