Saturday, August 31, 2019

Historical Court Cases and Landmark legislation on Special Education

Historical court cases and landmark legislation on special education schools have had various impacts on parents, children as well as the school and have directly impacted on various activities and rules that govern special education in our schools today. Though there are various historical court rulings on special education, in this paper I will emphasize on four cases to show how their ruling have had an impact on today’s special education.The first case to discuss was presented in 1972 by the Association for retarded citizens (PARC) vs. the Pennsylvania where children were not allowed in public school if they possessed certain characteristics. Some of the children were told that they could not attend schools because of their horrible appearances, which could otherwise be described as ugly to look at. The court ruling held that every child had a right to free and a public education. This ruling has impact on special education even today in that, it has enabled every child to have access of a free public education since it is right of children to receive education no matter of their disabilities or looks. It has also enabled children to freely interact with the others in school even though physical appearance of some of them may be horrible.In the case presented in 1979 by the Armstrong vs. Kline in Pennsylvania where the students who had disabilities were not allowed to go to the summer school even if the program was provided to the enabled students. The parents made a request to the district to provide this program to special students who have disabilities. The court ruling held that students who have severe disabilities are entitled the right of Extended School Year (ESY). Determination of this would be the by the use specific data, which will be part of individual program in education. The impact of this ruling is that children with disabilities up to now receive education in a long duration over the year than the other children especially in the sc hools of special education for students with disabilities.In another case presented in 1988, Honig vs. Doe, two students with diagnosed behavior disorders where each of them suspended because of acting out. The parents were of the view that, both these students were being punished because of their disability. The court held that students who have handicaps should not be expelled out of school due to handicap related behaviors. The impact of this ruling is that in the process of punishing a student with disabilities, one should think on what type of punishment he should give. This has prompted teachers to devise proper means and ways of punishing these students in schools.The fourth case to discuss here was presented on 1989, Daniel R.R vs. The state education board. Parents wanted Daniel to be put in main stream school program even though he was disruptive and yelling in the class. The court held that schools can have use of inquiry of two parts so that they can determine extend to which a child needed to be mainstreamed or to determine that regular classroom had a learning room environment. The impact of this ruling is that a child who is disruptive can not be placed in one classroom with the other children since he can make the classroom not to have a good learning environment, which will affect the learning of the other children. This is what is put in practice even today and that is why there are special schools for students with such disabilities.

Byzantine Art Essay

Early Christian art was highly influenced by religious, political, and cultural changes. In contrast to the classical, idealistic portrayal of man, Early Christian art took a much more stylized approach to the depiction of man, with a neglected attention to human anatomy. The subject matter of much of the art turned from secular to religious; Christianity to be more specific. Constantine was the last emperor of the Roman Empire to hold undivided power. Under his rule, Constantine created the Edict of Milan, granting religious tolerance to all religions. This was of particular importance to Christians, who had been previously persecuted due to their spiritual beliefs. Because of the Edict of Milan, many Christian buildings were erected in addition to the many secular buildings that were transformed into Christian buildings. These buildings housed countless numbers of priceless religious artworks. One such example is the Transfiguration of Christ mosaic located in Saint Catherineâ€⠄¢s Monastery in Sinai, Egypt. When Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire to Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople (modern day Istanbul), the Empire separated. Upon the division of the Roman Empire, Justinian, The Last Roman Emperor, held power over the Eastern Roman Empire from 527 to 565. Justinian was both a political and religious leader. Under his reign, many Christian buildings were constructed. Justinian often associated himself with Jesus Christ in the Byzantine artworks that these Christian buildings housed as a form of propaganda. The Orthodox Church now recognizes Justinian as a saint. Byzantine is a term used to describe eastern Mediterranean art from 330 to 1453, when the Turks conquered Constantinople (Strickland, 1992, p. 24). Mosaics were one of the most common forms of art during this period. They were intended to publicize the Christian creed through their religious subject matter (Strickland, 1992, p. 25). Byzantine mosaics are composed of small, colorful glass or stone squares and rectangles, called tesserae, embedded in wet cement or plaster. These tesserae were arranged in a manner through which they formed images. Typically, Byzantine mosaics are located on the walls and ceilings within a church apse and dome (Strickland, 1992, p. 25). The artists of these mosaics left the tesserae with jagged surfaces to create the sparkling, illuminated effect that distinguishes these mosaics  from those of other periods and places (Strickland, 1992, p. 25). The exteriors of Byzantine Christian structures were very plain in contrast to the elaborately decorated interiors. The awe-inspiring mosaics and icons brought the focus of the buildings to the interiors. Perhaps this was a method to spread the word of God by attracting people to come inside the buildings. Byzantine Emperor, Justinian, ordered the construction of he Monastery of the Transfiguration, more commonly known as Saint Catherine’s Monastery because the relics of Saint Catherine of Alexandria are said to have been inexplicably transported there, at the foot of Mount Moses (Wikipedia, 2006). The monastery houses the Chapel of the Burning Bush, which was ordered built by Constantine’s mother, Helena (Wikipedia, 2006). The Chapel of the Burning Bush is located at the site where Moses purportedly saw the burning bush (Wikipedia, 2006). Saint Catherine’s Monastery is now one of the oldest active monasteries in existence. The monastery survived Islamic dominance over the region due to a document that Mohammed supposedly signed himself, granting his protection over the monastery (Wikipedia, 2006). Saint Catherine’s Monastery allegedly gave Mohammed political asylum from his enemies (Wikipedia, 2006). In addition, a Fatimid mosque was built within the fortifications of Saint Catherine’s Monastery, thus creating further protection of the monastery from Islamic invasion (Wikipedia, 2006). Without the protection of Mohammed and the mosque, Saint Catherine’s Monastery would have been destroyed, and all of the irreplaceable artworks within its walls would have been lost. Byzantine mosaics contain many characteristics that distinguish them from the rest. The typical gold background of a Byzantine mosaic creates a sense of weightlessness within the figures, as if they are floating. Byzantine artists depicted sacred figures with halos, separating them from the other figures. With nude images having been forbidden, one can hardly make out the anatomy of the fully clothed figures. Though it is evident that symmetry was greatly appreciated, it is also evident that the mosaics lack perspective.  The figures depicted in the mosaics are flat and frontal facing with linear details. They are often slim with almond shaped faces and large eyes. The images depict little to no movement, creating a sense of stillness. These highly stylized Byzantine mosaics show disregard for Greco-Roman ideals. On an expedition set out by the University of Michigan in search of sites to excavate in the Near East, the staff spent five days at Saint Catherine’s Monastery (Forsyth, 1997). They discovered that the mosaics within the monastery had undergone little restoration since the time of Justinian (Forsyth, 1997). As a result, most of the works were in bad condition and on the verge of collapsing (Forsyth, 1997). Mosaic restorers came in to save the mosaics, which could have been lost forever (Forsyth, 1997). After they secured the mosaics, the restorers cleaned them (Forsyth, 1997). The mosaics now appear in their original state (Forsyth, 1997). One of the most known mosaics restored was the Transfiguration of Christ (Forsyth, 1997). The Transfiguration of Christ is located in the main church, Katholikon, in the apse over the high altar. The subject of this mosaic was an appropriate selection to portray in Saint Catherine’s Monastery because of its location at the foot of Mount Moses (Watson, 1999). In Christianity, the story claims that Jesus led three of his apostles, Peter, John, and James, to pray atop a mountain. It was here that Jesus transfigured, with his face shining like the sun and wearing bright white clothing. On both sides of Christ, Moses and Elijah appeared. Overhead, a brilliant cloud appeared, and God’s voice emerged from the cloud proclaiming, â€Å"This is my Son, the Beloved. Listen to him.† It was then that Jesus spoke with Moses and Elijah about his upcoming death. The artist of this mosaic is unknown because artists went unrecognized until much later. This mosaic is in the form of a triumphal arch, bordered by medallions occupying the busts of the twelve apostles, fifteen prophets, Longinus the Abbot, John the Deacon, two angels, and a Greek cross in the top, center (Watson, 1999). Jesus Christ is depicted in the center of the mosaic with black hair and beard. He was placed in an oval mandorla with a cross and a bright yellow circle depicting his illumination behind his head.  Rays of light are shown coming from Christ’s body. In addition to the mandorla depicting Christ’s holiness, this was done to make Christ the emphasis of the mosaic as well as to distinguish him from the other figures. Elijah is shown on one side of Christ, while Moses is shown on the other. Beneath Christ, Peter, John, and James are portrayed with awe (Watson, 1999). The Transfiguration of Christ contains all the elements of Byzantine mosaics. It has a bright gold background. The figures are dematerialized and one cannot tell which figures were intended to be floating and which are not. One can hardly make out the figures beneath the clothing and the only skin shown is on the figures’ faces, hands, and feet. All the figures were placed symmetrically around Christ, making him the focus of the mosaic. The halo and mandorla around Christ show his holiness. Only slight movement is shown through the figures’ poses. The figures are very flat, despite the attempts of the artist to show shadow and overlapping. All of the figures are slender with almond shaped heads and large eyes. One can hardly see perspective when observing this mosaic. In conclusion, religion, politics, and culture had a significant influence on The Transfiguration of Christ, and all Early Christian art for that matter. With the Edict of Milan legalizing Christianity, the focus of art turned from secular to religious, changing the course of art forever. The Edict of Milan made it possible for Christians to practice their spiritual beliefs openly, leading to Early Christian art. Early Christian art can be credited with the spread of Christianity. One might wonder if Christianity would be as prominent as it is today had it not been for these artworks, or would it have died off a long time ago. Without Early Christian art, one might wonder when or how today’s modern day art would have evolved.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Gloria Jeans Resarch Proposal Essay

Gloria Jeans started as a small coffee and gift shop in Chicago, USA in 1979. However, it wasn’t until 1995 that the company would become an Australian favourite, when the company was bought out by two Australian business men travelling in the USA. Today, Gloria Jeans operates over 1,000 coffee houses in 39 countries, but it is in Australia they are best known and loved, with over 460 coffee houses in Australia. Gloria Jeans has evolved from a simple coffee house into a specialty store, offering many different types of coffee, cakes and cold drinks. The market is highly competitive, and Gloria Jeans targets a younger demographic (peoples aged 18-25). Although successful, Gloria Jeans has been struck hard by giant competitors such as Starbucks and Au Bon Pain entering the Australian market, where Gloria Jeans has historically remained on top. Due to this, the company has decided to perform research to determine the preferences of their consumers, and to allow them to ensure their product mix is appropriate for their current customer base. Research Topic From the background information, the following research problem has been identified: To identify the types of customers that frequent Gloria Jeans coffee houses, to identify the types of products they purchase or are interested in purchasing, to determine the perceived quality of the products offered and to identify the patronage patterns of customers. The primary aim will be to determine the buying behaviour of Gloria Jeans customers, their perception of the products offered, if they prefer to drink coffee in house or take-away, and if the products offered are appropriate for the customers. As well as this, the company also wishes to determine the demographic features of its customers. Research Objectives The overall objective of the research is ‘to identify the consumption behaviour of Gloria Jeans’ customers’. This has been broken into the following three research objectives: 1) To determine the number of people who drink coffee, the frequency of their intake and whether do they prefer in-house or take-away coffee. 2) To identify whether the products available at Gloria Jeans are appropriate for the target market. 3) To examine customer attitude towards Gloria Jeans and its competitors in regards to product range, quality and comparability with competitors. These objectives aim to focus the research on the key areas identified and allow the development of a strategic research plan.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Juvenile Justice Authority in Maine Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Juvenile Justice Authority in Maine - Term Paper Example Journals, books, and credible Government and educational websites have been used as references. The Juvenile Justice System In order to explore the juvenile justice authority activities in Maine, we must first understand the juvenile justice system of the state. The juvenile justice system in Maine is functional inside the greater juvenile justice framework of the United States. The theory behind this framework is based on extensive research, experience, and sociological introspection. Critical theorists and sociologists hold juvenile delinquency and juvenile justice in the terms of a class structured capitalist society. â€Å"They point to economic and social inequalities that increase the probability of lower-class youth turning to crime because so few opportunities are open to them. Critical criminologists contend that the origin of the concept of delinquency and juvenile justice in America is based on economic and class differences.† (Hesse and Lawrence, 2010, p. 59) The j uvenile justice authority in Maine practically implements the conceptual framework based on this theoretical perspective. Under the auspices of Maine Department of Corrections (MDOC), the juvenile services of the state seek to establish a society oriented approach that will give rise to a collaborative and supportive social system including the individuals along with their communities and families. Thus, the factors that put children at risk can be addressed and necessary action can be taken in proper time. Technically, the resultant functionary is both proactive and amply oriented to the social needs. Juvenile Justice in Maine: An Overview The Maine Department of Corrections (MDOC) regulates juvenile justice in the state through its Division of Juvenile Services, which is the main juvenile justice authority in the region. In their publication Taking Measure, the authorities have explicitly explained their mission in the following words: â€Å"To promote public safety by ensuring t hat juvenile offenders are provided with education, treatment and other services that teach skills and competencies; strengthen prosocial behaviors and require accountability to victims and communities.† (MDOC, Division of Juvenile Services, 2007, p. 3) The structure of the service framework is primarily based on the youth development centers. The two most prominent centers are: 1. The Long Creek Youth Development Center (LCYDC) 2. The Mountain View Youth Development Center (MVYDC) LCYDC: The center was originally named the Boys Training Center established in 1853. After several remodeling and adaptation drives, â€Å"it continues to redefine many of its program functions to enable a total multi-disciplined team approach in working with those committed and held within the facility.† (MDOC, 2011a) MVYDC: This facility started operation in 1998. â€Å"This secure facility replaced the use of county jails within the ten counties as the primary detention location for juven iles pending court action prior to sentencing† (MDOC, 2001b) It also serves the purpose of brief confinements. Moreover, the juvenile services have collaborated with the University of Southern Maine in order to embark on different social-scientific projects. These projects address the evolving needs of the juvenile justice framework. Many of the projects are designed to collected and exploit statistical data regarding juvenile delinquency and its effects in the

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

One Concept, One Reading, and One Application Essay

One Concept, One Reading, and One Application - Essay Example This concept has been refined over a period of time based on the experience gained by television professionals and the public in dealing with the social issues. This audience engagement is more pronounced in TV debates than in any other programs on television. It doesn’t exist only at the ‘moment of reading’ but, the subject lingers in the minds of the audience which might prompt them to react later. Therefore, effectiveness of communication at this stage, if at all it is intended, can be measured by its impact on the public subsequently. In any other case, the impact of a good debate is expected to form a public opinion or shape up the public’s attitude in social issues of various kinds. Social subjectivity argument is more amenable than textually produced subjectivity especially in the political setup prevailing in most of the countries that is predominantly democratic with liberal views on freedom of speech and expression. Convergence of technology It is also interesting to note that the technological developments took place over years have enhanced the role of media as a means of mass communication in societies. The earlier boundaries in information and communications technology have vanished under convergence of technology. Television networks offer phone service and Internet television. Mergers between media and telecommunication firms gave rise to faster technological developments and their applications for commercial exploitation. Mobile phones with plethora of facilities including Wi-Fi have made the media more interactive. Ernesto Schmitt (2013) said â€Å"Our Android users have been very vocal about wanting a full-featured tablet version of zeebox,† Technological developments have enabled increased connectivity between the audience and television. Zeebox CTO Anthony Rose stated: "The future of broadcast TV is about synchronicity between the TV and the second-screen. zeebox’s platform connects TV context with u sers and content owners, enabling a deeper connection between broadcast TV and its fans." John Fiske has not mentioned about the impact of technological developments, since most of the developments took place later. Applications in real life The author has pointed out â€Å"that Morley found that Hall, in following Perkin (1772), had overemphasised the role of class in producing different readings and had underestimated the variety of determinants of reading† (61-62) especially ideologies. But, ethnography as a valid method of studying television and its viewers based on culture has its own limitations though it takes into account the diversity in social formation and culture. For example, debates on important subjects like ‘employment in call-centre’, ‘Diversity in workplace’ or ‘outsourcing’ would be more useful not only to the employees, but also to the employers, students and public who have vested interest in the discussions on the subject. For instance, the need for diversity in work force, its impact on culture or its benefits could lead the people to introspection and change their opinions or views in the light of the debate. While focussing the differences among viewers, revaluation of the text is also necessary for paying

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

I don't have a topic but want something in the line of Essay

I don't have a topic but want something in the line of IT,telecommunication or netorking - Essay Example takes place regularly and firms that are able to keep pace, have experienced enhanced performance, reduced costs, shorter lead times and better service delivery. It also revealed that along with technology, people have to be trained to use the technology. Integration of technology has to be aligned with the business objectives and information flow is paramount to the success of IT implementation. Uncertainties and risk cannot be avoided in technology but can be minimized with the right application and training of personnel. This study would have managerial impact on the use of IT in supply chain management. The study has limitations as some technology could have been overlooked. This study has added to the existing knowledge because under one umbrella the latest technology and its impact have been reviewed across different industries which employ supply chain management for their operations. Information Technology (IT) is changing the world; it has become infused in life and it brings many challenges with it. Every aspect of management today requires information on which to build the organization. Nothing moves without information but mere information is not power. Information is no doubt the most vital asset that an organization possesses but the sheer volume of information that flows in an organization makes it essential for the managers to understand its importance. Strategic decisions are taken on the information and information changes by the minute. The right dissemination and application of information is power. The conversion of data from internal and external sources into information requires the use of information technology. It helps in enhancing the decision making process, enhances the operations, helps in overall growth of the company. It includes hardware, software, people, communication system, and the data itself. Information Technology can be used in a ny type of company be it manufacturing, retailing, or the service industry. While IT can be

Monday, August 26, 2019

Distillation- Gas Chromatography Investigations Lab Report

Distillation- Gas Chromatography Investigations - Lab Report Example In the case where there are two compounds with a vast different vapor and pressures, then the two compounds can be separating through the technique referred to as simple distillation. In this case, simple distillation involves warming a mixture so that the liquid with higher volatility vaporizes first. The vapor of this liquid substance is then collected in a separate flask for purposes of being condensed back into liquid. However, for mixtures of compounds having same boiling points, a simple distillation would be performed multiple times or a fractional distillation would be applied over its length. In essence, fractional distillation is often used in separating mixtures of liquids that have a boiling point that are quite close to each other. Fractional distillation constitutes a long glass tube often packed with either ceramic or glass material allowing the vapor to vaporize and condense a number of times in the course of traveling up the column. Moreover, the condenser (fractiona ting column) is packed with these materials purposely to help increase its surface area. This is based on the principle that whenever a solution gets distilled in fractions, it goes through various re-distillations that help increase the purity of the product at the end of the tunnel. As liquid gets heated, vapor starts rising. These vapors condense when they come into contact with the fractioning column cooler surfaces. Continued heating of the distillation liquid leads to the increase in the rise of the vapors. The condensed vapors within the fractioning column re-vaporize hence moving up the column. Repeating this process several times causes components with the lowest boiling point to reach the top of the fractionating column first, which is the collected in the collection vial. Other components are collected following their ascending order of their boiling points. This process is applicable in the fractional separation of mixtures having multiple liquids. For instance, crude oi l is often separated in towers which are one hundred and fifty feet high. In this respect, more than 100 different components get separated from two thousand barrels of crude oil each day. Equipment or Materials In this experiment, the set of apparatus included 3 glass vials, Crystallizing Dish, Ice Steel wool, Microscale kit, Boiling chips, Hot plate, 100-mL beaker, Mixture of organic liquids, and Digital thermometer. Procedure In this experimental the set up was carried out in a hood. To start with the distillation, apparatus for this experiment was set up. Using scintillation vials or a 10 mL graduated cylinder, the distillates were collected. 10ml of ethyl acetate, and 10mL isoamyl acetate were obtained and transferred to the 50 mL round-bottom flask. Then the stirring bar was added to the flask with the stirring function being activated during the process of distillation. The stirring bar acted as a boiling stone and was added to help prevent bumping. The warming of the flask w as done making sure the distillate starts being collected in the graduated cylinder. At this instance, the temperature of the vapor when the first drop of the distillate started being collected in the cylinder was recorded. This was done making sure the thermometer was well positioned. The plate was adjusted in making sure the collection rate of the distillate was approximately 1 drop per second. The temperature was recorded after each mL of the distillate

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Defensive Developmentalism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Defensive Developmentalism - Essay Example The following script depicts Professor Gelvin’s findings on the defensive developmentalism study and the territories that practiced the approach, with the apparent reasons of assimilating the approach. According to Professor Gelvin, the approach revolved on military and economic prowess. Early in the 17th century, the western economies were fit in military and economic factors, which served as a threat ton the Middle East and North African nations (Kia, 2011). Therefore, the challenged regimes assumed that the best way to stand unchallenged against the rival European nations would be through the implementation of the same policies of leadership. Ottoman Empire and North African communities imply the earliest adapters to the system (Quataert, 2005). Their idea revolved on militarization with a stiff maintenance or improvement to the nations’ economic performance. ... The following recitation implements on the practices the two phenomena, that is, modernism and fundamentalism, with the successes and failures of each theory towards European encroachment. The Middle East empires were trailing behind their western counterparts in the 19th and 20th centuries. In order to clear retrogress, they shifted towards a favorable method of improvement thus they adapted to modernism in order to reshape their states. This would ignite industrialization and political stability as it was the key to stand firm against hostilities. The ottoman and Persian empires allowed the British and Russian aids and involvements in their territories respectively. The result was that the Islamic countries would drastically change their religious and cultural values. The continuous aggression of the European nations was not significant to the Islamic nations who focused on the advantages associated to the white nations. At the long run, the nations became colonies and the modernis m theory had not borne the desired fruits (Quataert, 2005). On the other hand, Islamic fundamentalism led to the restoration of the Islamic phase with a modified approach to political and economical environments. It emanated from the Christian protestant, but the Islams assumed it to imply a revolved approach to counter any future atrocities and cravings from the western colonial powers, with a consequential approach to economic and military competence. The theory was successful to shield the nations against aggression, although the western nations would at other times fund revolutions on the theoretical basis at their own advantage (Kia, 2011). Therefore, both modernism and fundamentalism had positive and negative

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Discussion GMOs in Producing Food, Bioaccumulation, Green Revolution Assignment

Discussion GMOs in Producing Food, Bioaccumulation, Green Revolution and Slow Food Movement - Assignment Example The role of genetically engineered foods in alleviating the world’s food insecurity is, without a doubt, extremely controversial. Indeed, while the potential benefits of the new biological techniques in food production may be exciting in the short term, the truth of the matter is that the long term effects on biodiversity, people’s health and the wider ecosystem are rather obscure. More fundamentally, questions linger on who in particular stands to benefit from this technology; is it the wealthy in search of more wealth or the people in need? Advocates have pointed to the potential benefits that include the elimination of pesticides in crop production, the development of disease/cold/drought resistant crops, elimination of malnutrition due to over-reliance on certain crops [rice], as well as a cost-effective way of vaccines produced in grown crops (Whitman par 5-10). Nonetheless, non-conclusive reports suggest that GM crops may actually transfer the modified genes to no n-target species [weeds], and thus reduce the foregoing effectiveness. There are also mounting fears of unexpected allergic reactions by consumers in addition to unknown health consequences (Whitman par 16-18). Though highly debatable currently, a research conducted on the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton, grown by small-scale farmers in Asia and other developing nations, indicates that the plant has extensive environmental has rm than the original pest control intention (Losey, Rayor and Carter 214). This debate is just but a sideshow away from the real looming crisis-global warming and impending dire consequences. The benefits notwithstanding, the money-profit perspective may the real driver into the GM foods and not food security. Part B 3. What does the acronym HIPPO describe? What does each letter stand for?  

Friday, August 23, 2019

Social work theory Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Social work theory - Essay Example 2). There are several models and theories about the cause of substance abuse and dependence used to provide an explanation of addiction. These models have strong implications on the interventions that practitioners implement. An explanation that addiction/alcoholism is a consequence of an individual’s personal choice is adhered to by proponents of the moral model. The view that indulgence in alcohol and substance abuse is a personal choice makes it justifiable for an individual to be punished. Another perspective views addiction/alcoholism is related to the parent’s excessive neglect during childhood. This type of explanation is characteristic of the socio-cultural and psychological models of addiction. Several studies reveal that people who become addicts have underlying psychological disorders and these interact with certain socio-cultural factors to cause further exacerbation of substance abuse. . In the well-being paradigm, â€Å"substance abuse is viewed as reflecting an underlying, intra-psychological deficiency† (Maton et al., 1992, p. 81). These psychological problems cause emotional pain and relief from pain is readily offered by alcohol and drug use. On the other hand, the disease concept of substance abuse postulates that addiction is a primary disease and not secondary or corollary to another condition. â€Å"Perhaps the greatest advantage to the articulation that addiction is a disease has been to remove the moral stigma attached to chemical dependency and to replace it with an emphasis on treatment of an illness† (Fisher et al, 1997, p. 45). However, a major criticism of this model is the notion that it relieves the substance abuser from taking responsibility of his/her behavior. It paints a picture of the alcoholic or addict as powerless and a passive victim in the drinking/ drug use behavior. To their defense, proponents of the

Article on improving training and retention in small to medium sized Assignment

Article on improving training and retention in small to medium sized businesses - Assignment Example Concerns of improving training and retention in these businesses are increasingly becoming centres of attraction for successful businesses. This essay explores the issue of employee training and retention in small and medium businesses. Comparative advantage in performance and labour productivity is being realized in small to medium sized businesses through strategic development of their human resources. Effective training and retention forms the key component of such an achievement (Analoui & Karim 2003). The ultimate goal of training in any organization is to improve the skills and knowledge of its employees and also gain a competitive advantage in a particular business sector. Training needs be tailored to address the business strategic objectives and meet its calculated needs. It also facilitates creation of a unique workforce. Small and medium sized businesses have to embrace the following practices in order to improve training and retention, putting more emphasis in valuing of work place learning and training. Like larger organizations, small and medium sized businesses need to continuously and regularly improve their capacity to gather information, managerial skills and their commitment to investing in employee’s knowledge and skills. ... Strategic training and partnerships should be employed to foster the achievement of such goals. For instance, in organizations that employ the principle of lean manufacturing which is geared to reduce waste and improve productivity, employees learning initiatives are tailored to support the principle. In addition, partnership training should help small business entity in strengthening its training reserves and learning to explore new business opportunities and increase returns in the long run (Alberto & Hamel 2005) Moreover, Employees need to receive tailor made training that matches their job task and anticipated work results. The training offered should be flexible to enable the employees accommodate their job responsibilities as well as social life ones. The training should also be participatory in nature such that employees who are efficient in one area are involved in sharing that knowledge with their colleagues. Formal employee training programs especially the foundation learni ng programs need to be adopted by the employers with the emphasis of developing communication skills. In the globalized and technology oriented business environment, customer satisfaction is imperative to any business success. In small and medium sized businesses, the employees represent the image of the organization and forms daily contact with the customers especially in those the service industry. The foundation training program should work as a curtain raiser to advanced training programs that facilitate the acquisition of management and leadership skills, decision making and problem solving (Alberto & Hamel 2005). This will form the basis of promotion within the organization because such programs prepare the employees for higher

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Sex DIfferences Essay Example for Free

Sex DIfferences Essay This experiment performed by the males and females in the Tuesday 4pm psychology lab, was done as a replication of the Halari et al experiment in London in 2005. The hypothesis in the original experiment was that women will, on average, gain a higher verbal fluency score than men and men will, on average, perform more accurately than women on mental rotation. The results obtained from Halari et al’s (2005) clearly prove this hypothesis correct. The results also rejected the null hypothesis which says that men and women will not differ with respect to verbal and spatial performance. Our replication experiment also proved the hypothesis of Halari et al’s (2005) experiment correct and rejected the null experiment. Our experiment followed a certain methodology. In the mental rotation task, each participant was to answer 50 questions which contained the stimuli; each of which showed 2 shapes rotated and the participants were to judge whether they are identical or not. As expected males had a higher accuracy level in this this task compared to females. In the verbal fluency task, the participants were given 3 categories; fruits, vegetables and animals. They had the instruction to write down as many items from the relevant categories as possible. As expected females had a higher accuracy level than the males in this task. In the methodology used in our experiment did contain some weaknesses that may have influenced the results. Our experiment was as free from bias as possible in order to make the results accurate and reliable. For the mental rotation task, every participant received a different set of stimuli, so that the participants could not copy each other. This produced reliable results. However this methodlogy contains a debility. The stimuli ranged from sets of easily distinguishable shapes to much harder ones. Since the stimuli was randomly chosen for each participant it is possible that one participant may have received all the hard ones (females) and another may have received all the easily recognisable ones (males). Another debility in this methodology was that the set of stimuli varied in difficulty as discussed earlier. Also their rotation patterns varied. So some sets were just rotated once while other sets were rotated to an extent where some of  the faces were indistinguishable hence breaking the pattern we perceive causing our minds to get muddled in recognising the stimuli correctly. This is clear in the categories used in the verbal fluency task which have no form of gender bias whatsoever. The categories chosen are generic and known well to both males and females. An example of a gender bias category would be something like computers which is more biased towards males than females. While a catergory more bias towards females would be make up. However despite having no gender difference there was a weakness present in this method; english as a second language. Our group of participants contained people of different ethnicities and nationalities. Which meant that not all have english as their first language. This in turn proves to be a weakness to our expeirment as those people who possess english as a second language, wont be able to think of english words as fast as in their own language, (all words written had to be in english). This would have posed a problem for such participants as they would have had to think of a word in their own language and then translate it into english. This could have decreased some of the participants performance as time span was limited to one minute. Overall, the results obtained from this experiment clearly suggest that men and women specialise in different cognitive abilities in relation to spatial capacity and verbal competency. These results solidify that boys and girls-and men and women-are programmed by evolution to behave differently from one another is now widely accepted, (The Economist, 2006). These results indicate the theory posed by Harvard president, Larry Summers to be true. He pointed out the detail that the number of women in professions which require a spatial understanding such as mathematics, engineering are few, (The Economist, 2006). This however does not state that women have no spatial capability, it only suggests that in comparison to men women are weaker in spatial understanding. Nevertheless this does not say that these abilities are completely innate. These cognitive abilties can be trained, so a woman with a PHD in engineering will definietly have a higher spatial capability than a man working at Coun tddown. According to our results men and women vary in terms of cognitive abilities. Men appear to be better at spatial tasks while females at verbal fluency. This variation is deemed as occuring due to the common battle; nature vs nurture. It is said that the social upbringing plays a big part in understanding the reasons for this variation. When a child is born depending on the gender, parents tend to choose either blue or pink for that child. This stereotype created by society may unwillingly fit young boys and girls into their stereotypical roles. According to, The Economist (2006) it was believed that boys and girls prefer different toys. Where boys prefer cars, trucks and guns, girls prefer dolls and tea sets. However this was disapproved and it was found that girls and boys are already different when they are born due to the hormone, testosterone. When a child is born, it experiences two surges of testosterone- one during gestation and one shortly after birth, (The Economist, 2006). The production of testosterone is higher in males than in females hence creating the ‘boy-like’ behaviour we all talk about. This testosterone is said to be the reason for why boys tend to look at mobile phones longer than people’s faces, the way females do. But the basic theory is that the high levels of testosterone in males produces the rough play. While the low levels in females generate the nurturing tendency in them hence causing them to prefer dolls and tea sets, (The Economist, 2006). Unlike the Halari et al, (2005), the experiments conducted to prove this theory did not contain hormone tests. Hence we cannot conclude hormone levels being the main factor responsible for the variance in cognitive abilities. It is more commonly believed though that the interlacing of both social upbringing and hormone levels is what causes these differences. Although women have that low level of testosterone, by nature they are constructed to be the nurturers. Therefore females tend to prefer the dolls to play with as it is an indication towards their future role as a mother where it is needed that they speak and interact more often with their children. Women on average speak 20000 words a day, 13000 more than men, (Mail Online, 2013). This confirms the findings in our experiment where females were found to have a higher verbal competency. At the same time by nature males are constructed to be the strong protectors. Therefore males tend to prefer the cars or guns to play with indicating towards warrior-like behaviour. This point is also argued by The Economist, (2006). They believe these differences are genetically there via hormone levels and the social stereotyping solidifies the roles that they are genetically made for. This experiment was carried out to distinguish the differences between males and females on a cognitive level. The mental rotation task which tested for spatial ability exhibitied an inclination towards the males as their accuracy levels were higher than the females. However, the verbal fluency task exhibited an inclination towards the females as their accuracy levels were higher than the males. The results obatined from these two independent tests were straight forward, though both can be bettered. The spatial task deduced that males possessed a higher spatial ability than females however the task was not closely related to real life. A true test would have been one that would have provided us with examples of real life where these abilities would have needed to be used. For example, giving the participants a set location to reach and allowing them to guide themselves there. This task would have displayed spatial ability in real life conditions. The verbal fluency task concluded that females possessed a higher vocabulary level however this task lacks in fairness in terms of language. Not every participant had english as their first language causing them difficulty within the one minute time limit. To better this limitation, perhaps next time all participants could be of same background with english as their first language. Also since we replicated the Halari et al (2005) experiment perhaps a better imitation would have been to also carry out the hormone tests. With the tasks we performed the results suggested that men were better at spatial tasks and females at verbal fluency however we cannot generalise this statement. Thus the hormone tests may help us solidify this conclusion. This theory is proved by our experiment as well. Although our experiment did not contain hormone testing like the Halari et al, (2005) our results concluded that males have a higher spatial capacity. This ability is an indication at the warrior-like protector behaviour. Females were concluded to have a higher verbal competency. The results we obtained from our replication of the Halari et al, (2005) helped us conclude the difference between the cognitive abilities in males and females hence proving our hypothesis correct.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Contrast Media and Intravenous Urography

Contrast Media and Intravenous Urography Introduction The practice of clinical diagnostic radiology has been made possible by advances not only in diagnostic equipment and investigative techniques, but also in the contrast media that permit visualisation of the details of the internal structure or organs that would not otherwise be demonstrable. The remarkably high tolerance of modern contrast media has been achieved through successive developments in chemical pharmacological technology. A single dose of X-ray contrast medium commonly contains upwards of 2000 times as much iodine as in the total physiological body content, and yet it is cleared from the system rapidly and naturally, usually with no adverse effects at all. The choice of contrast medium has always been a matter of debate, but is ultimately the responsibility of the radiologist. In order to be able to make a rational decision as to the selection of contrast media, it is necessary to have some understanding of the physical and physiological principles involved. The objective is to provide a background for non-specialists on this complicated specialist subject. Why contrast media are necessary Different tissues within the body attenuate the beam of X-rays to different degrees. The degree of attenuation of an X-ray beam by an element is complex, but one of the major variables is the number of electrons in the path of the beam with which it can interact. The number of electrons in the path of the beam is dependent upon three factors: The thickness of the substance being studied Its density The number of electrons per atom of the element (which is equal to its atomic number) In a complex mixture of elements, which is of course what we are concerned with in the organs of a patient, the degree of attenuation is particularly influenced by the average of the atomic numbers of all the atoms involved. Where there is a considerable difference between the densities of two organs, such as between the solid muscle of the heart and the air in the lungs, then the outlines of the structures can be visualised on a radiograph because of the natural contrast that exists. Similarly, if there is a difference between the average atomic numbers of two tissues, such as between soft tissues, which are composed of elements of low atomic number, and bone, which is partly composed of the element calcium, with a rather higher atomic number, then the outlines of the different structures can be seen by natural contrast. However, if the two organs have similar densities and similar average atomic numbers, then it is not possible to distinguish them on a radiograph, because no natura l contrast exists. This situation commonly occurs in diagnostic radiography, so that, for example, it is not possible to identify blood vessels within an organ, or to demonstrate the internal structure of the kidney, without artificially altering one of the factors mentioned earlier. Two of the factors important in organ contrast can be artificially altered, the density of an organ, and, more usefully, the average atomic number of a structure. The density of a hollow organ can be reduced by filling it with gas or air, providing negative contrast. This is mainly of historical significance, but is still used when, for example, gas is introduced into the stomach or colon during a double-contrast barium examination. The average atomic number of hollow structure such as a blood vessel can be increased by filling the cavity with a liquid of much higher average atomic number (such as iodine containing contrast medium) than that of blood. In fact this is the principle by which contrast media consist of solutions or suspensions of non-toxic substances that contain a significant proportion of elements of high atomic number, usually iodine. EXAMINATION USE CONTRAST MEDIA common are described below. It should be noted that the volume, strength, as well as the type of contrast medium, will vary between patients according to the examination type and radiologists requirements. 1. Angiography Angiography is the general term which describes the investigation of blood vessels. Usually a distinction between arteriography and venography is made, depending on the kind of blood vessel (artery or vein) which is examined. Arteriography In arteriography a contrast medium is introduced via a catheter into an artery, which makes the lumen of that vessel opaque to X-rays. The natural flow of blood carries the contrast medium peripherally, and by taking a series of radiographs the radiologist can obtain images akin to a road map of the blood supply to an organ, or a limb. Localised narrowing or obstruction of an artery or a pathological circulation in a tumour can then be identified. Sometimes the radiologist may then proceed to treat the patient using the catheter system, which was introduced initially for diagnosis. Arteriography is relatively time consuming for the radiologist depending on the complexity,  ½ hour 2 hours, or even longer can be spent on the procedure. Venography (phlebography) The natural flow of blood in veins is towards the heart, and by injection of a contrast medium into a peripheral vein, a map of the venous drainage of a limb can be obtained. The larger size and greater number of peripheral veins, and the fact that the flow of blood is much slower in veins than in arteries,means that it is usual for the radiologist to take several radiographs of each area with the limb in different positions. The commonest indication for venography is to confirm a suspected diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis of the leg. Venography is also performed on organs within the body by introducing a catheter into a peripheral vein and manipulating it into an organ. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) A special type of angiography is digital subtraction angiography (DSA). These procedures involve the use of specialised electronic equipment, computing and radiographic hardware to produce rapid sequential images. The DSA image is produced by electronically subtracting images without contrast media from images after contrast media injection. The result of this subtraction process is the visualisation of contrast filled vessels which are free from the distraction of overlying structures. 2. Intravenous urography (IVU), intravenous pyelography (IVP) When injected intravenously, most contrast media are rapidly excreted by the kidneys, and a series of radiographs taken after the injection will demonstrate the urinary tract. Intravenous urography is still the basic radiological examination of the urinary tract. The main indication is to assess the morphology of the kidneys. Further indications are: detection of kidney stones and calcifications in the ureter or bladder, assessment of obstructed urinary flow and investigation of patients with haematuria (the passage of blood in urine). Children may be investigated for congenital abnormalities of the urinary tract. In recent years for some investigations of the urinary tract, particularly uncomplicated infection, an ultrasound examination and plain abdominal radiograph have replaced intravenous urography as the initial investigation of the urinary tract. 3. Computed tomography (CT) Since 1973 an imaging technique known as computed tomography (CT) has developed to become one of the most important radiological examinations in the industrialised countries. CT uses conventional X-rays in a thin nondivergent beam to produce cross sectional images of the body. The X-ray tube and an array of detectors mounted within a supporting framework, rotate round the patient with each scan. CT produces digitalized images, although these are usually printed onto hard copy film in a format that is useful for transfer and viewing throughout the hospital. By electronic means CT improves via a higher contrast sensitivity, the natural radiological contrast between organs. However, it cannot create contrast where none exists naturally. CT is exceptionally sensitive to contrast media and can detect abnormalities, caused by disease, following an injection of an intravenous dose of contrast medium. This procedure is known as enhancing the scan. About 43% of all CT procedures involve the use of a contrast medium. CT is widely used throughout the body but the most frequently investigated areas using this technique are neuroradiology (brain and lumbar spine) and general radiology of the chest, abdomen and pelvis. It is particularly useful for the diagnosis, staging and follow up of malignant disease. 4. Myelography The spinal cord and the attendant nerve-roots which radiate from it cannot be visualised using conventional X-rays alone without the use of contrast media. They can be visualised directly using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). They can be visualised if contrast medium is injected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which surrounds the spinal cord, rendering the CSF radio-opaque but not the cord of nerve roots. Specific contrast media have been developed for this examination. The majority of myelograms (or radiculograms) were performed to examine the lumbar region to confirm the clinical suspicion of a prolapsed intervertebral disc. However, CT and MRI have now largely replaced myelography as the initial investigation of the lumbar spine. Myelography, particularly combined with CT scanning is still used however to investigate the cord and cervical region and its nerve roots in difficult cases when other investigations are equivocal or normal. Interventional Techniques/Procedure Many radiologists are now specialised in therapeutic procedures that have bee developed from radiological diagnostic techniques using catheters and guidewires. These procedures include: The dilation of pathologically narrowed arteries angioplasty, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). The deliberate occlusion of arteries supplying abnormal areas such as tumours, aneurysms and vascular malformations, so depriving them of their blood supply. The placement of artificial tubes or stents into blood vessels, bile ducts or ureters to bypass a pathological narrowing. These procedures often necessitate the use of high doses of contrast medium, because several examinations of the same vessels may be required during the control of the therapeutic process. Safety of Contrast Media Contrast media are among the safest of all of the pharmaceutical products available to the doctor today. They are anomalous in that they are not intended to have therapeutic activity: indeed, the ideal contrast medium would have no pharmacological activity at all. For this reason the concept of therapeutic ration, which can be applied to medicines, does not apply to contrast media. The development of a contrast medium from the first design of the molecule through to product licence takes many years. The minimum period of time that can reasonably be allotted to preclinical and clinical development is six years, and in practice it is not uncommon to take nine years or even more. During this long period, the tolerance of the medium is rigorously tested by collecting data from various preclinical and clinical trials to establish a profile for the product. One critical area examined during its development is the incidence of adverse reactions. The rate of adverse reactions to iodinated co ntrast media on the market is extremely low, but such reactions do occur just as they do with every pharmaceutical product. The adverse reactions associated with contrast media can be divided into two groups: Those reactions that are clearly dependent on the dose and concentration of the contrast medium administered and those that are almost independent of dose and concentration. Dose-dependent adverse reactions are mostly due to the physiochemical effects of the contrast medium, such as its osmolality, or electrical charge. Possible adverse reactions include heat, pain, vasodilation, cardiac depression and hypotension. The adverse reactions which are almost independent of dose and concentration are nausea and vomiting as well as allergy-like or hypersensitive reactions such a urticaria (hives), certain cardiovascular reactions, bronchospasm and laryngospasm, but there is little evidence of any antigenantibody interaction. These reactions cannot be predicted and their underlying cause remains unknown. For clinical purposes it is meaningful to divide contrast media reactions into three categories: Minor e.g. Flushing, nausea, vomiting, pruritis, mild rash, arm pain Moderate e.g. More severe urticaria, facial oedema, hypotension, bronchospasm Severe e.g. Hypotensive shock, laryngeal oedema, convulsions, respiratory and cardiac arrest Most contrast media reactions are minor and need no treatment. Moderate reactions are encountered rarely (about 1%) and severe reactions very rarely (about 0.1%), but all moderate and severe reactions require adequate treatment. Deaths following contrast media administration are extremely rare. Reported mortality rates vary between 1 in 10,000 and 1 in 169,000 averaging around 1 in 75,000. Katayama et al. (Radiology 1990; 175: 621-628) found that there is a reduction in adverse reaction rate of about four times using low osmolar contrast media (LOCM) for intravenous injection compared to high osmolar contrast media (HOCM). There is surprisingly no documented difference in mortality between intravenous LOCM and HOCM in large series from Japan and Australia. It is not usually possible to predict severe reactions, even by looking at the effect of a small test dose of a contrast medium. Guidelines have been produced for the use of low osmolar contrast agents. Risk Renal adverse reactions Contrast media-induced nephropathy is defined as impairment in renal function (an increase in serum creatinine by >25% or 44à £Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€š ¬mol/L (0.5mg/dL) occurring within 3 days following the intravascular administration of contrast media in the absence of an alternative etiology Risk factors include raised s-creatinine levels particularly secondary to diabetic nephropathy, dehydration, congestive heart failure, age over 70 years old, concurrent administration of nephrotoxic drugs, e.g., non-steroidal ant-inflammatory drugs Systematically effective 1. Adequate hydration in terms of oral fluid intake or intravenous normal saline (depending on the clinical situation) at least 100 ml per hour starting 4 hours before to 24 hours after contrast administration is recommended. Concurrent administration of nephrotoxic drugs should be stopped for at least 24 hours. High osmolar contrast media, large doses of contrast media, or multiple studies with contrast media within a short period of time should be avoided. Alternative imaging techniques that do not require the administration of iodinated contrast media should be considered. Recent work in preventing and ameliorating contrast medium-induced nephropathy with N-acetyl cysteine 4-6 and various hydration regimens including use of sodium bicarbonate has been promising but is not conclusive yet. No measure has yet resulted in avoidance of its occurrence in all patients.Non-renal adverse reactions.These are generally classified as idiosyncratic or chemotoxic. Idiosyncratic (i.e., anaphylac toid) reactions occur unpredictably and independently of the dose and concentration of the agent. Most anaphylactic reactions relate to the release of active mediators. Conversely, chemotoxic-type effects relate to the dose, the molecular toxicity of each agent, and the physiologic characteristics of the contrast agents (i.e., osmolality, viscosity, hydrophilicity, calcium binding properties, and sodium content). Chemotoxic-type effects are more likely in patients who are debilitated or medically unstable 2. Acute reactions to contrast media can be divided into minor, intermediate, and severe life-threatening. Minor reactions include flushing, nausea, arm pain, pruritus, vomiting, headache, and mild urticaria. Such reactions are usually mild in severity, of short duration, selflimiting and generally require no specific treatment. Intermediate reactions are more serious degrees of the same symptoms, moderate degrees of hypotension, and bronchospasm. The reactions usually respond readily to appropriate therapy. Severe life-threatening reactions include severe manifestations of all the symptoms described as minor and intermediate reactions, plus convulsions, unconsciousness, laryngeal oedema, severe bronchospasm, pulmonary oedema, severe cardiac dysrhythmias and arrest, cardiovascular and pulmonary collapse. The prevalence of adverse reactions with lowosmolar contrast media is less than with high-osmolar contrast media by a factor of 5-6. Lethal reactionsrarely occur. The actual risk of death is less than one in 130,000 at most 3. The incidence of severe adverse reactions increases in patients with previous contrast medium reaction, bronchial asthma and allergy requiring medical treatment. Premedication with corticosteroid prophylaxis has been proved safe and effective in preventing minor adverse events in high-risk patients when ionic agents are used 4. The data indicating a protective effect of corticosteroid prophylaxis are less established when non-ionic agents are used. Opinion is divided about the value of premedication when nonionic agents are used. Even if it is given, there is a wide variety of regimes with different doses, number of doses, and frequency for corticosteroid prophylaxis. 5. A variety of symptoms (e.g. nausea, vomiting, headache, itching, skin rash, musculoskeletal pains, fever) have been described, but many are unrelated to the contrast medium. Allergy-like skin reactions are welldocumented side effects of contrast media, with an incidence of approximately 2%. Most late skin reactions after contrast medium exposure are probably T-cellmediated allergic reactions. Patients at increased risks are those with history of previous contrast medium reaction and those undergoing interleukin-2 treatment. Most skin reactions are usually mild to moderate, selflimiting and likely resolve within a week. Treatment is symptomatic and similar to the treatment of other druginduced skin reactions.Extravasation of contrast material is a well-recognised complication. The introduction of automated power injection has increased the incidence because power injection may result in extravasation of large volumes in a short period of time and may lead to severe tissue damage. Intravenous Urography Introduction Intravenous urography is a radiographic study of the  urinary system  using an intravenous contrast agent (dye). It is a medical procedure used to visualise the kidney and lower urinary tract to help diagnose problems such as infections. A contrast dye is injected into a vein on your hand or arm, and then x-rays are taken. The dye helps to outline more clearly the structure of the kidneys and lower urinary tract. The  kidneys excrete the contrast into the urine, which becomes visible when x rayed (radiopaque), creating images of the urinary collection system. An intravenous urogram is ordered to demonstrate the structure and function of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. Patients complaining of abdominal pain radiating to the back may require this exam to rule out  kidney stones. Hematuria may also be an indication of kidney stones,infection, or tumors. Patients with high blood pressure (hypertension) and recurrent bladder infections may also require an intravenous urogram (b ut hypertension usually is imaged with MRA or nuclear medicine imagery and this exam is done when renal artery stenosis is the suspected cause of refractory hypertension). Sometimes the exam is ordered to evaluate the function of the kidney in a renal transplant patient. The transplanted kidney is located in the iliac fossa, so special films of the pelvis area are done instead of the normal routine views. The radiographic technologist may also be required to take x rays in the operating room when a retrograde pyelogram is ordered by a urologist during a C and P (cystoscopy  and pyelography). Indication A normal intravenous urogram indicates no visible abnormality in the structure or function of the urinary system. The radiologist looks for a smooth non-lobulated outline of each kidney, no clubbing or other abnormality of the renal calyces (collecting system), and no abnormal fluid collection in the kidneys that could suggest obstruction. The ureters must contain no filling defects (stones) or deviations due to an adjacent tumor. The bladder must have a smooth outline and empty normally as visualized on the post-void film. Abnormal results include hydronephrosis (distension of the renal pelvis and calices due to obstruction) as a result of tumors or calculi (stones). Cysts or abscesses may also be present in the urinary system. A delay in renal function can also indicate renal disease. An abnormal amount of urine in the bladder after voiding may indicate prostate or bladder problems. Intravenous urograms are often done on children to rule out a rapid developing tumor in the kidneys, called a Wilms tumor. Children are also prone to infections of the bladder and kidneys due to urinary reflux (return back-flow of urine). Procedure The patient will be required to change into a hospital gown and empty his or her bladder. The x-ray technologist will verify that the patient has followed the bowel preparation and complete a detailed questionnaire on the current medical history of the patient. This includes previous contrast reactions, known  allergies, risks of  pregnancy, and current medications. The x-ray technologist will explain the exam in detail to the patient as well as the risks of the contrast material that will be injected intravenously. All departments require that the patient sign a consent form before the examination is started. The x-ray technologist will relay this information to the radiologist who will decide on what type of contrast will be used. Patients who have had an injection with no reaction can be given less expensive iodine based contrast, whereas patients who take various  heart  medications or those with known allergies or  asthma will be injected with a more expensive contrast agent (known as non-ionic contrast) that has fewer side effects. Some departments use the non-ionic contrast exclusively. The patient will be instructed to lie supine (face-up) on the x-ray table and a preliminary KUB will be done. This is an abdominal view of the kidneys, ureter, and bladder used to verify patient preparation, centering, and the radiographic technique needed to demonstrate all the required structures. Kidney stones may or may not be visualized on the preliminary film. The x-ray technologist prepares the required amount of contrast to be used depending on the weight of the patient (1 ml per pound). This is normally 50-75 cc of contrast for an average-sized patient. The contrast will be injected all at once (bolus injection) or in some cases, through an intravenous drip. Some radiologists prefer to start an intravenous drip with saline as a precautionary measure while others inject with a small butterfly needle. The needle usually remains in place for 10-15 minutes, in case more contrast is needed or in case drugs need to be administered because of an allergic reaction. Most reactions occur immediately but some can take place 10 or 15 minutes after the injection. The first film is taken immediately after the injection to see a detail of the renal outline (nephrogram). Films are usually taken at five-minute intervals depending on the routine of the radiologist. Compression may be applied to the lower abdomen with a wide band to keep the contrast material in the kidneys longer. This creates a more detailed image of the renal collecting system. When the compression is released after approximately 10 minutes the contrast material drains quickly and a detailed, filled image of the ureters is obtained. Films done in the upright or prone (face-down) position may also be ordered to better visualize the lower ureters. Some departments require routine renal tomographic images to be done as well when the kidneys are well visualized. This allows the kidneys to be seen free of gas or fecal shadows. Sometimes the radiologist requires oblique views of the kidneys or bladder to determine the exact location of calculi (stones). At approximately 20 minutes aft er the injection a film centered on the bladder may be required. The x-ray tube is angled slightly caudad (towards the feet) so that there is no superimposition of the pubic area of the pelvis over the bladder. The films are shown to the radiologist and if no further films are necessary the patient will be asked to void (urinate) and a post-void film will be taken. The exam can take from 30 minutes to one hour depending on the number of films required. If the kidney is obstructed, delayed films may be required to complete the exam. Patient care The x-ray technologist must work in conjunction with the doctors and nurses in making sure the patient has not had a previous allergic reaction to a contrast agent. All hospitals have an emergency team ready to react in such a situation, so the technologist must be aware of the procedure to follow when assistance is necessary due to a severe reaction. Details of patient preparation must also be communicated to the hospital wards. In some hospitals the radiologic technologists are trained to give injections, but if this is not the case nurses may be asked to install an intravenous drip before the patient is brought to the radiology department. The x-ray technologist must explain the risks of an allergic reaction to each patient even though severe reactions are extremely rare due to the advances made in the preparation of contrast agents. The x-ray technologist explains to the patient that a warm, flushed feeling or a metallic  taste  in the mouth are normal reactions in some patients. Breathing instructions are also important since the kidneys change position depending on the phase of respiration and to prevent motion artifacts. Sometimes an emergency patient with renal colic (acute abdominal pain) is asked to urinate through a special filter used to trap small stones. All radiographic technologists must be certified and registered with the American Society of Radiologic Technologists or an equivalent organization. Continued education credits are mandatory to remain registered. Risk and side effect Some of the side effects and possible complications including minor reactions to the contrast dye. It may include flushing, warmth and a metallic taste in the mouth. These usually resolve quickly. These symptoms are much less common with the newer contrast dyes. Some patient might experience severe allergic reactions. It may occur in a small percentage of the population. Symptoms range from relatively mild to severe, and can include hives (skin rash), breathing difficulties, swelling of the lips and tongue, low blood pressure and loss of consciousness. There is case when a patient experienced acute renal failure  but it occurs in less than 0.5 per cent of cases. Risk factors include advanced age, diabetes, dehydration and a past history of kidney disease. For patients with these risk factors, extra intravenous fluids, pre-treatment with acetylcysteine, and a reduced dose of contrast dye may be recommended, or they may undergo different procedures altogether. Problems that found There are several limitations of ultrasonography, CT, and MRI: lack of visualization for large portions of the urinary tract with ultrasonography, necessity of contrast agent administration and excretory images with CT, inability to visualize subtle urothelial abnormalities with sufficient spatial resolution with both CT and MRI, and insufficiency in visualizing calcifications with MRI[1]. Additional disadvantages of MRI are inconspicuousness of small intrarenal calculi, susceptibility artifact due to metallic objects that interfere with the visualization of ureteral segments, flow-related artifact in some sequences, and interference of hemorrhage into renal collecting system with static-fluid MR urography[8]. The patient effective dose, and therefore radiation risk, of CT urography is 1.5 times that of conventional urography. The increased radiation risk from a CT urography compared with an IVU should be considered in the context of the amount of information that is necessary for th e diagnostic task. Radiation risk is increased for smaller patients in CT urography and for larger patients in IVU[5]. Although CT falls short of IVU in the evaluation of urothelium, helical CT technology continues to evolve with introduction of multidetector row scanning (MDCT)[3,9]; MDCT may eventually replace IVU for the evaluation of hematuria[2,4]. Finally, there is not an optimum or ideal examination technique for CT urography[10] or MR urography. Examination techniques must be constructed according to suspected pathology of the patient and urinary system status. Although advances in imaging technology have given CT and MR urography advantages over IVU, many centers still use IVU as a part of routine radiological practice. Therefore, techniques or modifications for improving application and diagnostic capabilities of IVU should still be considered. For decades, intravenous urography has been the primary imaging modality for evaluation of the urinary tract. In recent years, however, other imaging modalities including ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging have been used with increasing frequency to compensate for the limitations of intravenous urography in the evaluation of urinary tract disease . Like intravenous urography, however, these examinations have their limitations. Large portions of the urinary tract are not visualized at US; CT requires contrast material administration and excretory images (at times with a prolonged delay), often with image reformatting for evaluation of the urothelium; and MR imaging may not demonstrate calcifications or show the urothelium with sufficient resolution for evaluation of subtle abnormalities. Thus, despite increasing use of these alternative modalities, the ideal global urinary tract examination remains controversial . Axial imaging with con trast material opacification of the urinary tract will likely evolve as the most efficient imaging evaluation. However, the declining use of intravenous urography in clinical practice reduces the opportunity to learn important interpretive skills. Formal urography (or the urographic equivalent of conventional radiography of the urinary tract following administration of contrast material for CT) is frequently performed in the evaluation of hematuria. Urography may also be performed in the pre- or posttherapeutic evaluation of stone disease that has been discovered with other modalities. BARIUM SWALLOW Introduction A barium swallow and meal is type of X-ray test that allows your doctor to examine your throat, oesophagus (the pipe that goes from your mouth to your stomach), stomach and the first part of the bowel (duodenum). X-rays usually pass straight through parts of the gut such as the oesophagus, stomach and bowel and so these structures dont show up well on plain X-ray images. However, if the gut wall is coated with barium, a white liquid that X-rays cant pass through, a much clearer image of the outline of the gut can be captured. If your stomach is being examined, the test is called a barium meal. If your oesophagus is examined at the same time, its called having a barium swallow and meal. A barium swallow and meal test can help work out why youre getting symptoms such as difficult or painful swallowing, heartburn, reflux and abdominal pain. The tests give your doctor information about the swallowing action, and

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Electronic Music | An introdcution

Electronic Music | An introdcution Electronic Music: The standard way of thinking about music has it that it is an important aspect of any culture and socialization. Although there is major difference in music genres from culture to culture, we all can say that music is an important part of our lives. Not only it is soothing, but it also creates individuality in individuals depending on the genre of music they like and accept. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics,†Music provides entertainment and distraction from problems and serves as a way to relieve tension and boredom. Some studies have reported that adolescents use popular music to deal with loneliness and to take control of their emotional status or mood†. Music is a great way to escape the reality and create a sense of serenity in an individual. For many years we have shifted in music rhythms and productions. Classical music and other older genres are currently overlapped by the modern day rap, hip-hop, and dance and electronic music. In our modern day so ciety, electronic music a large role on providing the listeners with great beats and rhythm but also provides to the listeners to go to an electrifying extent. Electronic music is not only part of the rave scene but musicians of different genres of music around the word produce the same beats by using the turn tables and electronic instruments. With the new and improved technologies and instruments, music is produced electronically with some bass guitars and drums, but no matter what instruments the musicians use, the production of music greatly provides the listeners with imagination. From different instrument usage, music is a great way to relieve stress and express emotions. Electronic music not only provides the listeners with a sense of emotion, but also creates imagination in individuals and serves as an inspiration to many other artists in the use of electronics. Music cannot be considered a single sound, but it is a set of beats and rhythm that create pleasure to listeners ears. Electronic music is an art, an art that is created by using electronic instruments such as turn tables. The main aspect of electronic music is that it provokes happiness to the listeners. Electronic music has different sub groups such as: Techno, Dubstep, Indie, House Tech, Trance and Dance but it does not matter to the listeners which to choose, they all produce the safe effect: create a sense of emotion in listeners. According to Leonard Meyer, â€Å"And finally, listeners, past and present, have reported with remarkable consistency that music does arouse feelings and emotion in them† (12). In other words, we as humans are full of emotion and express them in our daily lives. As electronic music played in clubs and social events, individuals feel happiness therefore undergo the state of excitement and then begin rhythmic practices such as dancing. And of cou rse, any type of music that the listeners decide to listen will experience emotion. Usually at large social performances by highly respected artists, individuals decide to wear neon colors that bring happiness to the performance. Electronic music provides the listeners with emotions due to different beats and rhythm that the audience follows. Some may decide to focus their attention on certain beat that attract their attention, however as a whole, electronic music is upbeat and surprising. Imagination is a huge process in which an individual paints a mental picture in learning styles. In a math class for instance, one may paint a mental picture of formulas to help one study, however when it is needed one must reflect back at that memory to retrieve the information. Due to the high intensity and upbeat rhythm, imagination is decided upon the individual. Some electronic musicians such as Tiesto or Armin Van Buren often use beats and rhythm that use nature sounds so therefore the listener may imagine that he or she is in a nature setting. Throughout the electronic beats that the electronic music provides, a message is conveyed. According to Leonard Meyer, â€Å"On the contrary, the musical theory and practice of many different cultures in many different epochs indicate that music can and does convey referential meaning† (3). Some music has meanings that are people can relate to. For instance, Eminem has been rapping about the meaning in his life however some genre s are turning toward explicit lyrics. Electronic music however is a set of beats that convey different messages to different individuals. People have the freedom to decide on the meaning of electronic music and what impact it has on their thoughts and imaginations. Thoughts, imaginations and reflections flow through listeners minds and an escape from reality occurs. As a result, electronic music provides the listener with many options on the relation of the meaning he or she decides to create. Our society has numerous bands that have progressed from using electric and acoustic guitars, drums and other instrument to using electronic computers and turn tables to produce new beats. Modern day artists produce their music in studios with a set of turn tables and electronic sets. More and more hip hop artist are turning toward electronic elements into their music which becomes more upbeat. The song â€Å"Feel It† by Three 6 Mafia and Sean Kingston for instance, is a great example of artists using electronic beats. Tiesto, one of the well known DJs creates the songs beats to which Three 6 Mafia raps to. Similarly, in dance clubs, DJs take ordinary hip hop songs and add a beat of electronic music for more pleasurable sounds and allow the audience to dance to. In Freedmans view, â€Å"Which brings us full circle to the original point—namely, that electronicas rise isnt just a trend. Rather, the influence of electronic elements into all forms of music seems to indica te a real turning point, a change in ideals brought on by the increased availability and affordability of computer-based music-creating programs†. Our generation has greatly become more and more technologically advanced in many aspects of daily lives. Technological advancement not only has made our healthcare, entertainment and communication better, but it also has changed the music industry. Electronic music has a major impact on different genres. Although the new technologies have a big impact on the music industries, electronic music has influenced artists to use upbeat music. As a result, an individual has the freedom to decide to listen to electronic music or not, he or she may hear electronic aspects in different songs that are heard on the radio. As I have shown, electronic music provides more than just beats and rhythm to the listeners but also allows them to find inner imagination. Electronic music has progressed from being underground to the modern day popular culture which is attracting more listeners and allows them to experience a sense of enjoyment. Once a listener hears a single electronic music song, he or she will fall in love and would want to listen more. There are numerous DJs for a listener to choose from such as: ATB, Above and Beyond, Tiesto, Armin Van Buuren and Marcus Schulz and they will provide the first time listener with a sense of excitement and surely will not disappoint them. Works- Cited Meyer, Leonard B., Emotion and Meaning in Music.Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999. Fuld, Gilbert G., Mulligan, Deborah A., and Brown, Ari. â€Å"Impact of Music in Children and Young Adults†. American Academy of Pediatrics 124 (2009): 9. Freedman, Pete. â€Å"Electronic Music Moves Its Way Into Other Genres.† The Dallas Observer 19 November 2009. Web. 13 March 2010.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Homelessness Essay -- essays research papers

Homelessness   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Homelessness as an issue in today's society is largely ignored. To many, the problem of homelessness is invisible or barely noticed. When these people do see the homeless it is found in the form of beggars who need to â€Å"pull themselves up by their bootstraps† or mentally ill people who â€Å"just can't help themselves†. In either case the central point remains; the homeless must be people who are incapable or unwilling to help themselves. After all, wouldn't they stop being homeless if they just tried? These sorts of rationalizations cover a more disturbing truth; that for many in today's society, the spectre of homelessness is more pressing of a problem than helping those who are already on the streets. The millions living below the poverty line live in constant fear that at any time an event may occur that will drive them below the cultural and economic radar. Therefore, one major effect of homelessness is the creation of a threshold that force s people to remain in poverty for fear of losing what meager possessions they have.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The economic structure of the US, while changing from a product-based to a service-based job pool, remains with a similar split of the rich and the poor that has existed throughout the world since the beginning of recorded history. The illusion of the middle class in the 1950s created an expectation in modern America that great material achievement is not just possible but almost a bir... Homelessness Essay -- essays research papers Homelessness   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Homelessness as an issue in today's society is largely ignored. To many, the problem of homelessness is invisible or barely noticed. When these people do see the homeless it is found in the form of beggars who need to â€Å"pull themselves up by their bootstraps† or mentally ill people who â€Å"just can't help themselves†. In either case the central point remains; the homeless must be people who are incapable or unwilling to help themselves. After all, wouldn't they stop being homeless if they just tried? These sorts of rationalizations cover a more disturbing truth; that for many in today's society, the spectre of homelessness is more pressing of a problem than helping those who are already on the streets. The millions living below the poverty line live in constant fear that at any time an event may occur that will drive them below the cultural and economic radar. Therefore, one major effect of homelessness is the creation of a threshold that force s people to remain in poverty for fear of losing what meager possessions they have.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The economic structure of the US, while changing from a product-based to a service-based job pool, remains with a similar split of the rich and the poor that has existed throughout the world since the beginning of recorded history. The illusion of the middle class in the 1950s created an expectation in modern America that great material achievement is not just possible but almost a bir...

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Essay on Kids, Schools and Guns :: Argumentative Persuasive Topics

Kids, Schools and Guns Guns. The word itself conjures up images of bloodshed and death. Yet instead of instilling fear into people, American society has embraced guns and placed them in numerous homes under the pretence of protection. Add to that image - children. Children and guns should never have any association, yet has become somewhat commonplace because of the many incidences that involve the two. In the age bracket of 10 to 19 years, guns are the second leading cause of deaths, after automobile accidents, in America. Of the 5751 deaths in 1993, 3661 were homicides while 1460 were suicides. One American in that age group dies every 92 minutes regardless of cause, and for every child killed, four are injured. Between 1996 and 1997, 6000 school children were expelled for bringing guns to school. (http://www.handguncontrol.org/) In April 1999, two boys in Littleton, Colorado went on a rampage at Columbine High School where 12 students and a teacher were killed. Almost 20 other students were hurt during this incident. They turned the guns on themselves after the shooting was over. Then in May, a 15-year-old boy opened fire at Heritage High School in Conyers, Georgia injuring six students. He had taken a rifle and pistol from a cabinet of weapons in his home. (http://www.angelfire.com/wa) In May 1998, in Springfield, Oregon, a 15-year-old, expelled from Thurston High School, returned to the school and opened fire in the cafeteria, killing two students. His parents were later found shot dead in their home, believed to have been killed by the son. The latest shooting took place in Michigan this past February where a six-year-old boy shot dead a classmate. Kayla Rolland, 6, was shot through the neck and died later in hospital. The boy was under the care of his aunt, living in a house where guns were within reach, and drugs were traded for stolen weapons. The six-year-old, suspended from school three times prior to the shooting, once for stabbing a student with a pencil, got the loaded gun from under some blankets on a bed at the house in which he was living. One might imagine that after all these unnecessary deaths, gun laws would be revised to ensure guns are kept out of the hands of children. In America, the Brady Law states that anyone under 21 cannot legally purchase handguns from licensed dealers. There is, however, a loophole whereby 18 to 21-year-olds can purchase handguns from private or unlicensed dealers.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Undocumented Students

Undocumented immigrants are foreign nationals who enter the United States without authorization or enter legally but remain in the United States without authorization. Undocumented youth and students usually have no role in the decision to come to this country; they are usually brought to this country by their parents or relatives. Brought by their parents to the U. S. as minors, many before they had reached their teens, they account for about one sixth of the total undocumented population. The United States Census Bureau estimates that in the year 2000, approximately 2. million undocumented youth under the age of eighteen were living in the United States. Some 65,000 undocumented students graduate from U. S. high schools each year. Illegal through no fault of their own, many undocumented students are honor students, athletes, student leaders, and potential professionals. As a result of their immigration status, these young people face more struggles than documented students, when lo oking to continue their education after high school. Struggles include not being eligible for federal money and not being legally able to obtain employment upon graduation.There is a conflict between Federal and State law regarding the eligibility of undocumented students for in-state tuition rates. Section 505 of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 prohibits illegal aliens from receiving in-state tuition rates at public institutions of higher education. State and federal grants are awarded only to U. S. citizens or eligible non-citizens. To apply for a federal or state grant, one must complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), which requires the student’s social security number. Federal student loans are also not available to undocumented students.Most high school seniors rely on federal money as most of their financial aid for college. Students see their peers receiving federal financial aid and do not know how they ar e supposed to go about looking for money. Then is the struggle of finding private money because some scholarships require that students have a social security number. Ultimately, the search of every senior student for college money is even harder for undocumented students because they do not have a social security number. Of the few illegal immigrants who overcome financial hurdles and graduate from American colleges, few can obtain jobs, creating a mall pool of unemployed illegal immigrants with college degrees, a minority within a minority. Applying for a job without legal status requires asking potential employers to sponsor them in obtaining American citizenship, something most employers are unlikely to do for job candidates. Most undocumented college graduates are ineligible for many professional careers. Undocumented college graduates grow up in America, where they are taught to dream high and work hard to succeed in this nation but at the end of the day, those doors stop open ing.Opportunity for advancement ends on graduation day, as undocumented college graduates try to find their way into a job market from which they are legally excluded. â€Å"When you're in school you have a place in society, you're a university student,† Jorge Garcia, DREAM Act supporter, said during an interview. â€Å"When you graduate, you're just an immigrant again. † An immediate consequence, as a result of the extra work that undocumented students must put into their college application process, is that some students drop out of high school. These students find it easier to leave school and enter the working world.They are knowledgeable of the fact that, even with a college degree, they most likely will not find employment after graduation. Most undocumented students feel that beginning to work early in life is the only way they may become successful. It is estimated that only between 5 and 10 percent of undocumented high school graduates go to college. There is little incentive for them to finish high school, leading to high dropout rates. Thus, another consequence arises, the potential for them to become involved in gangs and illegal activities. Long term consequences include mental side effects.Cases of depression and suicide have resulted from a feeling of hopelessness for success. Suicide is the third leading cause of death in 15 to 24 year old Latinos, who make up the largest portion of undocumented students. A 2007 Center for Disease Control survey found that Latinos make up the largest portion of American high school students who tried to take their lives. It showed that 10. 2 percent of Latino high school student had tried to kill themselves, compared to 5. 6 percent of whites. Many undocumented immigrants are terrified of speaking to officials.There is a fear of deportation that makes many undocumented immigrant youth unwilling to seek depression treatment. Congress has not ignored undocumented students’ need for help in at tending college and succeeding after college graduation. In 2001, Senators Orrin Hatch and Richard Durbin in the Senate, and Representatives Howard Berman and Chris Cannon in the House introduced the DREAM Act. The Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors Act (DREAM Act) addresses youth who were illegally brought to the United States but who have since grown up here, stayed in school, and kept out of trouble.To qualify for immigration relief under the DREAM Act, a student must have been continuously present in the United States for at least five years prior to enactment of the legislation or under fifteen years of age at the time of entry into the United States, and demonstrate good moral character. Once a qualifying student graduates from a U. S. high school, he or she is allowed to apply for conditional status that would authorize up to six years of legal residence.During this period, the student is required to graduate from a two year college, complete at least two yea rs toward a four year degree, or serve in the United States military for at least two years. Permanent residence is granted at the end of the six year period if the student has met these requirements and has continued to maintain good moral character. Originally introduced in the Senate in 2001, the DREAM Act has fallen short of votes in Congress several times since. In its reintroduction, in 2007, it fell short by eight votes. More recently, the DREAM Act was reintroduced in the House and Senate in December 2010.With bipartisan support and President Barack Obama supporting the act, many undocumented students believe they are getting closer to their dreams of seeing the act pass. The number of undocumented students at the university level is low. Attending college, and even doing splendidly, does nothing to alter these students’ illegal status. The DREAM Act would offer a pathway to citizenship for many college students and members of the military. Supporters last year were u nable to secure enough votes to prevent a filibuster of the bill. Supporters say it is inhumane and counterproductive to shun students who have come so far with so little.DREAM Act opponents of both houses of Congress say that undocumented students are looting limited educational resources that should go to citizens and legal residents. Republican Dana Rohrabacher, representative of Huntington Beach said, â€Å"I hope you return to your home country right away, and I hope you repay what you have spent of other people’s money. It’s a horrible crime. † Most American high school graduates get the opportunity to test their dreams and live their American story. However, a group of approximately 65,000 youth do not get this opportunity.They are a group of young people stained with the inherited title â€Å"illegal immigrant. † These young people have lived in the United States for most of their lives and want nothing more than to be recognized for what they are , Americans. Illegal students are not eligible to receive any type of federal or state financial aid or grant money. They are unable to access higher education and even if they do, they are not legally able to obtain employment upon graduation. The United States is missing out on talented workers, and is losing vital tax revenues and other economic contributions.