Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Industrial Growth in the United States for 1860-1900 Essay

Many important factors helped to promote America’s huge industrial growth during the period from 1860 to 1900. Before the blossom of this industrialization, the United States consisted of mostly farms and small towns. The development of factories and urban cities soon changed all of this. The railroad system expanded and eventually turned into a goldmine for commerce in the United States. Machinery started to decrease the amount of animal labor used, which allowed the consistency and production of goods to rise. As it reached the brink of the 20th century, America had surprisingly become the world’s greatest industrial nation in history. The Civil War, caused by Southern states seceding from the Union, sparked the beginning of the United States’ industrial growth. As the war came to and end, reconstruction within the country began to take place. Many new ideas and inventions began to pop up and American business leaders recognized them. One of these ideas was a railroad that would run from coast to coast. In 1862, the building of this Transcontinental Railroad began. It was finished by 1869 and drastically increased cultural diffusion. The Republican party of the Federal Government was in control during most of the country’s industrial boom. Their platform wanted to impose tariffs, or taxes, on foreign goods to keep America’s spending within its own borders. They also supported the construction of the Transcontinental Railroad. The railroad allowed goods to be sold throughout the whole country, which in turn increased production and sales. At that point in time, as well as today, time equaled money. Travel times were cut, and therefore money was raked in more than ever before. By 1900, there was almost 200,000 miles of railroad track in America. This was an increase of over 160,000 miles from 1860. The United States was â€Å"on track† to becoming a huge industrial nation. During the period of time between 1860 and 1900, there were many needs in industry. These needs included communication, natural resources, power sources, cheap labor, and applied technology. In the 1850s, 52% of all power came from animals while only 35% came from water and coal. By the 1900s, the use of water and coal more than doubled to 73% of all power sources. Many business tycoons realized his growing use of resources. One man by the name of John D. Rockerfeller created a monopoly over the entire oil industry  through his plan of Horizontal Consolidation. With this plan he was able to bring together many firms in the oil business and combine them into a single unit called a trust. Another man, Andrew Carnegie, had similar views on gaining total control of a commodity. In 1882, he used the idea of Vertical Consolidation to gain control of the growing steel industry. His business, the Carnegie Steel Company, therefore controlled every factor in the production of steel. Rockefel ler and Carnegie both became very rich men, and the United States Congress soon recognized this. They responded by drafting the Sherman Antitrust Act, which outlawed the combination of businesses that would destroy competition. As more and more people moved to the West in search of better lives, the need for communication grew. Systems of sending messages through wires and electric currents soon began to appear. These inventions were called the telegraph and the telephone. People in the West could now communicate with the friends and loved ones in the East that they moved away from. In turn, their fear of isolation soon disappeared. Although the trouble of communication was diminished, life on the job continued to be a problem. Workers demanded better working conditions. Factories soon began to run faster and more smoothly than in the past. Working conditions also improved and provided less risk of injury and strain on workers. (Document 1) Conditions were only getting better, but the need for lower wages was a growing problem for factories. Immigration rates to America began to increase. From the 1860s to the 1900s, the number of immigrants rose to over eight million people. This allowed wages for workers to go down because immigrants would work for less money. The factories could now spend more money on the production of goods. The many demands of industrial growth were met throughout America’s industrial boom. During the second half of the 19th century, the United States shocked the world by transforming into a dynamite industrial nation. It’s population increased from six million people in 1860 to over thirty million in 1900. Power sources played a major role in industry at this time. Communication devices and railroads also increased commerce. Big businesses were on the rise and American’s soon left their farms for factories. These factors helped to promote the United States’ successfully rapid industrial growth during the period from 1860 to 1900.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Prejudice and Discrimination Essay

Analytical Factsheet on Prejudice & Discrimination on Class Inequality Section 1: Executive Summary This essay is about prejudice and discrimination occurring in Singapore context to address Class discrimination. This essay will also show reasons to why prejudice and discrimination occurs and the effects of such inequity can cause to the society. In this case studies possible measures and solutions will be highlighted and suggested. Section 2: The issues and who are involved. This essay will discuss the discrimination against foreign workers working in Singapore. I will be elaborating on how class discrimination has adverse impacts on society on economic level and social levels. I define foreign workers as a group of minority that come from different countries to work in Singapore. According to the 2009 Singapore Yearbook of Manpower Statistics, 37. 6% of Singapore’s population are made up of foreign workers (1. 1 million %). This proves that foreign workers are an important component of our labour force. (Construction (70. 7%), followed by manufacturing (46. 8%) and service (28. 9%) sectors. ) The reason why I chose this topic is that knowing that this group of people had contributed to the country’s growth, yet they still suffer from social inequality and it is an important to address such issues and to understand what leads to such prejudice and discrimination against them. The common stereotypes of foreign workers are they are dirty, have weird body odour, lack of proper hygiene, creates disturbance in housing areas. They tend to speak loudly, creating a lot of noise and being responsible for the crime rates in Singapore. (The Straits Times Nov 2007 they eat, litter, get drunk, urinate, sleep and even fight,) They are also classified as poor people, cheap labour, being lecherous and not very well educated, and people with ill intension. These stereotypes then evolve into prejudices and discrimination and people tend to believe such information because it is consistent with their stereotypes while dismissing contradictory information. Having such stereotypes, people will tend to avoid and be unwilling to mingle with this group of people. For example in the case of the dormitory being setup for a group of foreign workers near the Serragoon gardens issue, it has brought about a big fiasco. Residences were worried about the safety and security in the neighbourhood. Working in a foreign country somehow shows that they are poor, in need of money and thus creating an impression that they wouldn’t hesitant to break in into houses to steal. (CNA October 3rd 2008 Dormitory decision upsets some Sera goon Gardens residents) It clearly shows how they are being mistreated by allocating their living quarters next to the cemetery to prevent any social conflict between the locals and these foreigners. (The Online Citizen Nov 2009 Social isolation – left among the dead) Many of them are being deprived of proper housing conditions where many need to be squeeze into a small room. Dormitories provided were usually poorly facilitated and has very low hygiene standards and others stay at worksite which can be dangerous. (The Online Citizen Sept 2009 Special Feature Is Singapore Slum Free? ) Unsafe transportations were used to ferry these workers to the worksites. Due to these factors, resulting in cases where foreign workers’ lives were lost because their welfare and safety weren’t factor in as priority. (Asia One News the New paper June 2010 3 death 14 hurt in latest crash) This group of people are commonly discriminated by the derogatory name( chinaman, bangala) given to them and being viewed a ‘2nd class citizen’ due to the low paid jobs they have thus having low social status. And because of this they are often being disrespected, taken for granted and exploited in the labour market. (The Online Citizen October 5th 2009 Chinese worker issued with receipt containing vulgarities) Section 3: Why it is important for us to talk about it? Currently there are laws and regulation in Singapore to protect these foreign workers but much can be done to improve on the current situation. According to civil society organisation Transient Workers Count Too, Ministry of Manpower hands out booklets to foreign workers upon their arrival in Singapore. These booklets regarding the employment act are available in different languages, hotline number is also provided for workers to report abuses. But employers and agents, in many cases, confiscate these leaflets and brochures, thus such informations are unable to reach them. Public endorsement of the exploitation of foreign workers seems to be allow for businesses and ports in Singapore to run 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year on foreigners because the economic market have created an industrial and work culture that requires them to accepting conditions that local workers would not agree to. Thus businesses are allowed to cut corners by squeezing foreign workers dry. The restrictive work permit system, which ties foreign workers to a single employer, makes it difficult for them to negotiate for better working conditions let alone higher wages. Many were afraid to speak up fearing that they might lose their jobs. Returning to their countries is not what they are looking forward to as many have taken out loans of up to $9000 just to work in Singapore. These workers have to work for long hours to support their families and to re-pay their debt. Contracts that are written are usually not made clear to the workers. Employers made the contracts solely to protect their own needs, rather than creating an unbiased relationship between themselves and their workers. Unions on the other hand are limited to how much they can do to assist and help demand for better working conditions. When workers are poor and lack legal protection, they are often willing to work longer hours for lower wages. Hence, the reason employers are willing to hire foreign workers in favour of local workers is because working conditions of all low wage workers in general are poor to start with. With such social inequality present in a multi racial country, it is important to address these issues in order to uphold the country’s goal to foster good relationship between different groups of people and to maintain a presentable image in the global world. Most importantly is to educate and ensure growth of such sectors should not be made at the expense of these workers’ rights. Being a small country, the effects if a strike will to occur will affect the country drastically, it will only tell foreign investors that we are not strong enough to provide a stable policies for business dealing and human rights are being abuse thus reflecting badly on Singapore’s reputation. Hence it is important to make sure fair treatment is giving to them. Negative effects will surface if they decided to vacant these jobs and it will definitely crumble the industries that which employments of foreign workers are high. Section 4: Where can we start to fix the problem? To tackle the problems of such inequality, by raising awareness and creating opportunities for interaction is ideal. Giving foreign workers a medium to voice out their opinions is necessary for human rights and the Government should initiate sharing sessions with foreign workers where translators could be brought in to break down language barriers. To help ease the problem of exploitation, laws which work against bad lodging can be further enforce with stricter consequences. For example, improve living conditions so as basic necessities are provided. Reduce discriminatory behaviours acted towards this minority group, the media can also play a part to show that what dangerous or risky jobs are taken up by them to make our living lifestyle better and to address and give credit to their contributions. In addition, subjects such as civics and moral education can be used to reach out to educate students about discrimination at a younger age. References: 1. The Online Citizen Nov 2009 Social isolation – left among the dead http://theonlinecitizen. com/2009/11/social-isolation-left-among-the-dead/ 2. Asia One News the New paper June 2010 3 death 14 hurt in latest crash http://news. asiaone. com/News/The+New+Paper/Story/A1Story20100623-223657. html 3. The Online Citizen Sept 2009 Special Feature Is Singapore Slum Free? http://theonlinecitizen. com/2009/09/toc-special-feature-is-singapore-really-slum-free/ 4. Transient Worker Count too http://www. twc2. org. sg/site/newsletters/2008-sept-oct. html 5. The Straits Times Nov 2007 they eat, litter, get drunk, urinate, sleep and even fight, http://www. straitstimes. com/print/Free/Story/STIStory_180230. html 6. The Online Citizen October 5th 2009 Chinese worker issued with receipt containing vulgarities http://theonlinecitizen.com/2009/10/chinese-worker-issued-with-receipt-containing-vulgarities/ 7. Fit to Post June 24th 2010 Recognizing the work and sacrifice of foreign workers http://sg. yfittopostblog. com/2010/06/24/recognising-the-work-and-sacrifice-of-foreign-workers/ 8. The Online Citizen March 6th 2010 Foreign Workers Contract http://theonlinecitizen. com/2010/03/foreign-worker-contracts/ 9. Ministry of Manpower http://www. mom. gov. sg/Pages/default. aspx 10. CNA October 3rd 2008 Dormitory decision upsets some Serragoon Gardens residents http://www. channelnewsasia. com/stories/singaporelocalnews/view/380077/1/. html.

Monday, July 29, 2019

MGT(3900) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

MGT(3900) - Essay Example She says that a smile is very valuable in her job because it makes her look very approachable and likeable which is very advantageous to the business. According to Sharon, one of her jobs is to ascertain customer’s needs and this is perhaps the most important part of her job because when the customers are satisfied with the quality service the company provides through the salesperson, the company grows as a result of clients being faithful to the company and also may help by recommending the company to friends and relatives. She also presents company products and services to the customers. She is always exposed to a lot of people from different walks of life and Sharon says that this makes her job most interesting. She is a natural sociable person and communicating with people is one of the things she loves because she learns a lot from them. However, she says that the job is tiring especially during holidays and summer vacations because these are the times they have many clie nts. She says that technology makes her job a lot

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Introduction to Government failures Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Introduction to Government failures - Essay Example    Information failure is also another major factor that greatly contributes to governments failures. Because the government does not necessarily know enough details to enable it to make effective decisions on the best way to allocate scarce resources. Most of the economists believe in the efficient market hypothesis. That is, they assume that the market will always contain adequate information than any government or individual.The insinuation is that market values and market movements should be free from interference because individuals or governments cannot improve upon markets. Moreover, taxes on goods as well as services can raise prices artificially and interfere the efficient operation of the market. Also, taxes on incomes can create a disincentive impact and discouraging individuals from working hard to achieve the set goals and objectives in a particular country.Fixing of prices is also another major factor that leads to government failures. The government can fix both mini mum as well as maximum prices that can create distortions that contribute to various shortages. Shortages may rise if the government of a particular country fixes the prices of various products below the market rate. Also, provision of free health care services by the government is another major factor that contributes to its failures. That is, there will be long waiting lists for treatment that might be outnumbering the efforts of health care providers and thus causing failure in the provision of this particular service.

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Who moved my cheese by Spencer Johnson Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Who moved my cheese by Spencer Johnson - Essay Example They succeeded in finding it. Only because of the presence of cheese, that place becomes their place of interest. They keep on enjoying it. On such a fine day they find no cheese there. But they spend time with their old habits expecting the return of the cheese. Sniff and Scurry explores the maze for new cheese. Hem and Haw are a bit worried. The ’Cheese’ referred to in the story is a metaphor which stands for something a man wish to have with him till the end of his life .It may be some pleasant relationship, money ,peace of mind etc. We people are sometimes like Hem who denies the truth, and sometimes like Haw who first accepts the truth. Of course change is painful. Alteration is hard to adjust because of the inflexibility of the human nature. Tearing up the one which is near and dear is a throbbing experience. Haw adapts to change soon expecting something new which can give more contentment. Haw goes out in search of cheese. At that time he finds Sniff and Scurry already enjoying new cheese. According to Marcus Antonius â€Å"the universe is change, our life is what our thoughts make it.† This book illustrates how people foresee life, and prepare t hemselves for the change. Such people start searching for new alternatives before the actual change comes. Sometimes we have to hunt for the cheese. The envision of a person about life empowers him for the hunting. The simple but practical way of success is simply accepting it. A person who wants to grow should know how to manage life. Life is the change from the state of being and change is a regular process. The unexpected is always expected from life. If we are trained by ourselves to adjust with changes or to emancipate a better way of life due to change, then success will be our companion. We have to change our way of life when the cheese is found lost. The steps we follow, and the time taken for a twist is also important. When we are in the new ‘maze† we feel some

Friday, July 26, 2019

Research in Motion Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Research in Motion - Coursework Example The Blackberry phones pioneered the era of smart-phones although the competition has grown in the recent years from other platforms such as Android, iPhone and Windows. The demand for Blackberry phone has significantly increased because most businesses have adopted enterprise technologies and there is a growing concern of employees who want to gain access to corporate data securely while out of office. Most cellular networks provide data services hence the Blackberry phone fits perfectly in the ecosystem. Demand has also been fuelled by the growing changes in buyers’ preferences. The smart-phone market is now majorly based on platform rather than hardware and this has increased the applications available to the buyer hence increasing the demand for the smart-phones. The mobile phones have become a central part of an individual’s life hence buyers require a device that can offer extra features (Baumol & Blinder, 2011). The customer base has also grown significantly due t o an increasing middle class who are attracted to buy the Blackberry phones. The increased demand has resulted in the exponential increase in sales and profits. The supply of smart-phones has also increased due to technological advancements that have made it easier and cheaper to produce them. They are many companies producing smart-phones and as such the numbers of phones manufactured is high. From the aforementioned, we realize that the supply has increased over time. Therefore, it is evident that more units have to be sold to attain profit. Smartphone demand growth The market structure of Blackberry phones can be described as a oligopoly. The main players in the smart-phone market are Apple (iPhone), Nokia (Symbian), Google (Android) and Microsoft (Windows Phone). The product offered by these competitors is differentiated through various tweaks to the operating system. The barriers to entry in the smart-phone market are very high. Infact, a company has to lay a huge capital inves tment and extremely aggressive marketing tactics in order to start off in this market. The pricing in this segment is fairly uniform and high. The smart-phone market is characterized by constant innovation if only to remain competitive. The turnover of clients is high since buyers would wish to try out the new and fancy applications in the different smart-phone platforms. Market Share Comparison (January 2012) In order for Blackberry to continue prospering in this market, there is need for continuous innovation and launching of new product. The market of smartphones is very dynamic and this requires that a company stays on the forefront of innovation. The other trend that has a promising future is the applications (apps) market. The buyers need applications in their phones that make their lives easier and full of fun. To prosper in this segment, Blackberry should seek to have a robust community of developers through giving of incentives. The recent data outages experienced should be a thing of the past as this may lead to mass exodus of current users of the services (Redo, 2008). The core datacenters should be backed up and multiple fail-over mechanisms put in place to guarantee subscribers service availability. Blackberry phones have very low price elasticity. This implies that even if the price changes, it has very little influence on demand. With more income, there is a likelihood of more buyers of the

Critically analyse fair and equitable treatment standard in Essay

Critically analyse fair and equitable treatment standard in international investment treaties, taking into account recent treaty - Essay Example The specification of the standard, however, has been subject to various interpretations through the years because of its reliance on principles of equity. Debates over the FET revolve around whether this standard should be based on other standards of law or whether it is an autonomous and self-contained standard in itself. The standard it is most commonly related to is the customary international law minimum standard, and sometimes it is measured against more general principles of international law. In this paper, the evolving meaning of what constitutes fair and equitable practice as contained in BITs and as interpreted by arbitral tribunals shall be discussed and critiqued. The bases and rationale for the continued development of the FET will provide implications into the continued growth of foreign direct investments in this increasingly globalized economy. ... The most important principles that attach to FET are transparency, stability, and the investor’s legitimate expectations, compliance with contractual obligations, procedural propriety and due process, action in good faith, and freedom from coercion and harassment.3 The FET appears consistently in investment treaty practice since it was first articulated in the Havana Charter of 19484 where it is stated in Article 11(2) (a) (i) thereof: ‘to assure just and equitable treatment for the enterprise, skills, capital, arts and technology brought from one Member country to another.’ While the Charter was never enforced, U.S. treaty practice was influenced by its reference to FET.5 It was thereafter included in codifications of investor rights, beginning with the 1959 Draft Convention on Investments Abroad,6 Article 1 of which states that ‘Each party shall at all times ensure fair and equitable treatment to the property of the nationals of other parties.’ The identical wording was adopted in the 1967 OECD Draft Convention on the Protection of Foreign Property.7 As a result of the lack of precision in its definition, various treaties accord different contexts to the application of FET. Some BITs link FET with a substantive norm such as nondiscrimination, such as the treaty between Bangladesh and Iran which provides that each party extend to covered investment ‘fair treatment not less favourable than that accorded to its own investors or investors of any third state, whichever is more favourable.’8 There are a host of cases that link FET with customary international law in a variety of ways, as shall be seen in the discussion of the use of FET in BITs in the

Thursday, July 25, 2019

A Journal opinion article Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 5

A Journal opinion article - Essay Example ObamaCare a health insurance has the official name of The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act to Health Care that was enacted into law in 2010 and will be implemented this year. One of the salient implications of the law when it is fully implemented in 2014 would be the enforced coverage of patients which insurance companies presently deem as â€Å"high risk†. It will also refocus the policy orientation of health care practices from being reactive (as coverage focuses on treatment) to being proactive as the new health care policy will also put importance on preventive therapies. Where before check-ups, consultations and preventive therapies requires a co-pay from policy holders, it will no longer be required under the new law so as not to discourage patients from availing preventative measures in looking after their health. Obama’s new health care policy will also address the present inequitable distribution of health care spending. Previously, half of the total expenditures in health care were spent on the 5% of the population and only 3% were spent on the 50% of the population. As it currently stands, the majority of American population receives only a miniscule fraction of health care expenditure while half of its total health care expenditures were spent on a small privilege number of Americans. Clearly, there was an uneven and inequitable distribution of health care cost allocation which the law would like to address. The new law intends to address and rectify this inequity in health coverage by the mechanism of the Obamacare. Under Obamacare, Government’s funding for Medicaid, the US government’s health care program for lower income families will be expanded thus covering more low income Americans. In addition, the new health care policy will also expand its coverage to employee’s children the age of 27. Obama’s Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act when fully implemented next year, health insurance co mpanies can no longer refuse coverage adults who have pre-existing conditions. Perhaps this component of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act made the law a â€Å"true patient’s bill of rights†. This law if fully implemented in 2014 will end one of the most unpleasant practices of insurance companies to unilaterally rescind or cancel a health insurance policy which were becoming a frequent practice among insurance companies to bend the legalities of an insurance coverage to avoid expensive insurance claims. Also, lifetime caps or limitation of the amount of insurance coverage which is the current practice of insurance companies on individual policies will also be removed when Obama’s new health care policy will be fully implemented in 2014. The budge for Medicare will also increase significantly. This increase of budget in Medicare has an implication to rural hospitals and other health care establishments that have a small number of Medicare patients w ill also be included in Medicare payment. Although well intended, President Obama’s Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act however was met with rabid criticism. Recently, Obama care had been the main cause of Republicans and Democrats came into a gridlock that no budget was allocated in 2014 that caused the government to shutdown in October 2014 in the effort of Republicans to defund Obamacare. Among those issues leveled against it and its implication are its added costs because the expanded coverage of Medicaid and Medicare will require additional funding from the federal government.

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Calculating Full Time Equivalents (FTE) Assignment

Calculating Full Time Equivalents (FTE) - Assignment Example However, it is important to note that fringe benefits and risk time have to be considered during the calculations. This ensures that the healthcare facility avoids instances when the nurse is not curved for during a time of emergency. These will however mean that all these will have to reflect on the total salaries to be given out. The salaries therefore, need to be increased a little. Nurse Managers have the responsibility of ensuring that nurses are covered for during the times when they are not on duty officially. After a word with the manager, he agreed with my analysis emphasizing that non productive time was a very important factor to consider when allocating tasks to employees and determining the total number of employees needed in a given unit. He stated that in a practical situation, it is important to have nurses on standby especially non permanent employees who will cover for the non productive time of the other

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

America Today Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

America Today - Essay Example Just as before the first round of financial depression, America had just elected a charismatic leader to the White House who promised to fix the problems left by his predecessor. However, he failed to do so and the American people were left to pay the price . I find it quite disturbing that America seems to have a pattern of allowing history to repeat itself. As one will recall from our lessons in this class, America was enjoying one of its longest and largest economic growth spurts before the depression came along. This is a typical scenario that was again played out before the 21st century era of American depression, only this time, both the stock market and banking system collapsed. With more than 15 million Americans out of work, the government chose to pull the country out of the depression era by introducing European style social and economic reforms The New Deal allowed the government to have a more direct hand in the social and economic business of the American people. By adopting a policy of moderate currency inflation the federal government managed to jumpstart the economy and offer relief to some debtors by creating credit facilities that dealt with industry and agriculture. Banks were severely monitored and controlled so that they would not make the mistake of increasing their already existing bad loans. While The New Deal ushered in a new era of social, political, and economic stability for the government, the events happening overseas in Europe and Asia were slowly beginning to rear its ugly head in relation to the existence of America as a pacifist country. The American economy was at its peak when it became directly involved in the European and Asi an wars of World War II. Although the United States of America managed to survive the economic effects of the war through the act of selling bonds, rationing, and other cost saving measures at home, the country was slowly emerging as the de-facto leader in terms of international relations. The defeat of Hitler during the European War by the Allied Forces allowed their scientists to come and work for the Americans who were still dealing with the war in the Asia Pacific at the time. Since the nuclear bombs were actually a Nazi brain child, these scientists who worked on the project simply handed over their research, results, and expertise to their new masters, who in this case, turned out to be the Americans. We helped them fine tune the weapon of mass destruction without really having a real reason to use it in the Asia Pacific war. 3 There is a historical belief that Japan was actually close to surrendering and had already lost the war by the time the U.S. forces had decided to drop the bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A decision that the government made, according to historical documents, on the fact that by being the first to use a nuclear weapon, the United States will have the upper hand in the nuclear arms race and shall therefore be

Monday, July 22, 2019

Problem of Evil Essay Example for Free

Problem of Evil Essay The traditional problem of evil emerges when people believe in and argue for the existence of a God who is both omnipotent and wholly good. According to Mackie’s study (1955), few of the solutions to the problem of evil could stand up to criticism. Today, someone suggests an alternative: God is not perfectly good, but maximally cool. By cool he means to be free from tension or violence. Since God is maximally cool, he is not so much concerned about either eliminating evil or maximizing goodness than promoting coolness. This God appears to be logically valid, but this essay will show that the existence of such God is impossible. First, we should ask this: if God aims to promote coolness, why would he bother to create evil? It is clear that evil is not cool, given that evil creates tension and violence. It may be replied that God is maximally cool and therefore creates anything based on his will and is not concerned with what happens to his creation afterwards. This reply is arguing that God created some cool thing which later then turned into the uncool evil. Then, the fact that uncool evil exists implies that God cannot make this uncool evil to be cool again, which contradicts with the premise that God is omnipotent. Secondly, good is also uncool. According to most theists, good is defined to be opposite to evil and thus always fights to expel evil (Mackie, 1955), so that good is in constant tension and possible violence with evil. Though the God in argument is claimed to be not perfectly good, this God is still good to a certain degree. Then he will still fights against evil and therefore is not always cool. This leads us to conclude that this God cannot be maximum cool. This guy in defense of the existence of a maximally cool God might argue that uncool is necessary as a counterpart to cool. It seems natural and necessary to consider why there should be uncool things if God is maximum cool. He might argue that if there were no uncool, there could be no cool either, in that if there were no violence or tension to be created and involved in, there could be no violence or tension to be free from. It might be that out of randomness, God created evil that generates tension and good that engages in tension against evil. To detach from involvement in tension or to destroy tension might create another tension and may incur violence. If God were to eliminate uncool things that he created, he would enter a tension between cool and uncool. Then, it would be uncool to make uncool things cool. Because God is maximally cool, he will not enter such tension and therefore he leaves good and evil as uncool as they are. By claiming that cool cannot exist without uncool, this guy shows that God cannot create cool without simultaneously creating uncool. This sets a limit to what God can do, which involves two possibilities: either God is not omnipotent or that omnipotence has some limits. If it is the first case, then we can deny the existence of a God who is omnipotent and maximally cool. If it is the second case, one may argue that these limits are logically impossibility. However, according to Mackie (1955), some theists hold the view that God can do what is logically impossible, while many theists maintain that God created logic. This leads us to the paradox of omnipotence, where we consider whether an omnipotent being can bind himself. According to Mackie, although we can avoid the paradox of omnipotence by putting God outside time, we cannot prove that an omnipotent God binds himself by logical laws. Therefore, it is a fallacious approach to prove the existence of a maximally cool and omnipotent by claiming that cool and uncool are counterparts to each other. To summarize, if a God is omniscience, then he must know the existence of uncool. If he is omnipotent and maximum cool, he will promote coolness to the maximum. However, we observe that there are uncool things which are against God’s will to promote coolness and which God cannot make them cool. Therefore, a God that is omniscience, omnipotent and maximally cool cannot exist. Works Cited J. L. Mackie, Evil and Omnipotence, Mind, New Series, Vol. 64, No. 254. (Apr. , 1955), pp. 200-212. In Pascal’s Wager, Pascal concludes that rationality requires people to wager for god. He bases his argument on mainly three premises. The first premise is his construct of the decision matrix of rewards. The second premise suggests that we are required by rationality to assign positive and not infinitesimal probability to God existing. The third premise states that we are required by rationality to perform the act of possible maximum expected utility. This essay will argue that Pascal’s Wager does not demonstrate solid prudential reasons for us to believe in God, by showing the third premise is not necessarily true. We consider that it is not in all cases that we are required by rationality to maximize expected utility. In Pascal’s Wager, we pay ‘one life’ to wager for God and obtain infinite expected utility. Paying finite amount to play a game with infinite expectation appear to be at our interests and can therefore serve as a prudential reason for us to wager for God. However, in certain cases, this action could be regarded as absurd and alternatively, and to the contrary, taking intuitively sub-optimal actions would actually maximize the expected utility. For example, the St. Petersburg paradox could be representative of this kind of situations. In the St. Petersburg game (Martin, 2011), we keep flipping a coin until we get a coin. The total number of flips, n, yields the prize which equals $2n. There are infinite sum of flips possible, so we have infinite number of possible consequences. The expected payoff of each consequence is $1 and therefore the ‘expected value’ of the game, which equals the sum of the expected payoffs of all the consequences, will be an infinite number of dollars. Then, intuitively we will be willing to play the game as long as we only need to pay a finite number of dollars, given that the ‘expected value’ of the game is infinite. However, Hacking (1980) suggested that â€Å"few of us would pay even $25 to enter such a game. † If we were to pay $25 for the game, half of the time we receive $2 and one quarter of the time the game pays $4, so the probability to break-even is less than one in twenty five. Still, because of the very small possibility of the number of flips to be greater than $25, the expected payoff of the game is larger than the $25 payment. According to standard Bayesian decision theory (Martin, 2011), we should play this game. Then again, because of the very small possibility of getting high enough payment, it is very likely that we will need to flip a coin longer than our physical possibility. In that sense, it will be absurd to pay this finite amount and flip longer than physical constraints for the infinite expected payoff. Therefore, it is not always true that rationality will require us to perform the act that yields maximal expected utility. In the St. Petersburg game we experiment infinitely many trials which yield infinite expectation. In Pascal’s wager, we have a single-trial which also yields infinite expectation. It seems natural for Pascal to assume that expectation is a good guide to solve this decision problem. However, according to Hajek (2012), we need to take variance into consideration to make better decision, because in this one-time shot, a large variance could lead us to an outcome which is much worse than the expectation. When the variance is small, it is probable to get an outcome close to the expectation. However, the further the distribution of outcomes spreads out, the more likely it is to get a bad outcome, and the less compelling the third premise seems to be. Assuming that the expectation of wagering for God is infinite, we can calculate the variance of the outcomes of the wager. Given the infinitely good of the good outcome and the status quo of the bad outcome, the variance is infinite. In the case of an infinite variance, due to our risk-aversion, we might be better off choosing to minimize variance than maximizing our expected utility. Indeed, if f2 is made as low as possible, the variance of wagering for God would be much greater than wagering against God. If the probability of the probability of receiving infinite good, is made as low as possible, the resulted variance might make we deviate much further away from the expected utility in an undesirable direction. Both cases above could happen, and if they do, we would feel less compelled by our rationality to maximize our expected utility because the large variance could lead us to a situation that is much worse than expectation. To summarize, Pascal’s premise three is not necessarily true. This premise says that we are required by nationality to maximize expected utility where there is one available. However, the St. Petersburg paradox suggests that rationality does not always require us to maximize our expected utility. Furthermore, in consideration of large variance, expectation might not be a good measure of choiceworthiness (Hajek, 2012). Without the validity of premise three, we cannot draw the conclusion that rationality requires us to wager for God. Therefore, Pascal’s wager does not solidly demonstrate that we have prudential reasons to believe in God. Works Cited Hajek, Alan, Pascals Wager, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2012 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed. ), URL = http://plato. stanford. edu/archives/win2012/entries/pascal-wager/ Martin, Robert, The St. Petersburg Paradox, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2011 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = . Hacking, Ian, 1980, â€Å"Strange Expectations†, Philosophy of Science 47: 562-567. According to Pollock (1986), you might be a brain floating in a vat filled with nutrient fluid. You do not realize that you are a brain in a vat because this brain is wired to a computer program that produces stimulation in brain to cause experiences that are qualitatively indistinguishable from normal experiences of being a human being. The problem lies exactly in that whether you are a brain in a vat or not, everything seems to be the same to you. Many philosophers have attempted to prove that you are not a brain in a vat and their approaches seem to be valid. Among those, Moore’s argument and Putnam’s argument are two influential but different approaches. This essay tries to show that you cannot use either of these arguments to prove that you are not a brain in a vat. While going through Moore’s argument seems to be an easy way to show that you are not a BIV (brain in a vat), it is not difficult to show how this approach is flawed either. By Moore’s argument, first you open your eyes and form perceptual knowledge that you have hands. Then you deduce that you are not a BIV which does not have hands and thereby you come to know that conclusion. However, it should be argued in the first place that your senses are not reliable. As Descartes argued in Meditations (1986), while you might form the perception that you are wearing a dress in the dream, you are actually undressed in your bed. The flaw in the logic of this approach can be demonstrated in the following analogous story. You see an empty glass on a table. The glass looks orange and in fact it is. You form perceptual knowledge that the glass is orange. You deduce that it is not colorless and filled with orange juice. You thereby come to know that the glass does not appear orange to you because it is colorless with orange juice filled in it. By assuming that there is orange juice in the glass, you establish that the glass does not appear orange to you because it is colorless with orange juice filled in it. Here the problem is that there is no orange juice and you are trying to prove there is orange juicy by assuming its existence. For the same token, if you are a BIV, then the hands that you perceive are hands* produced by one feature of the computer program. The premise asserting that you form a perception of hands is assuming that you are not a BIV and therefore can form a perceptual knowledge of hands. This is begging the question because we want to prove that we are not BIV. Therefore, you cannot prove that you are not a BIV by going through Moore’s argument. Another famous discussion is Putnam’s semantic arguments. One problem of this approach is the narrow scope of the arguments. Putnam started his arguments by drawing analogy between the mental image of a Martian and that of a BIV. Claiming that Mars does not have tree, Putnam established that BIV’s utterance of ‘tree’ has a different referent from the referent of a non-BIV speaking of a tree. While it is possible that you have always been a BIV since you come into being, so you have never seen a tree that a non-BIV sees. It is also possible that you have lived certain part of your life as a non-BIV and then at some point you are made into a BIV. For example, if you recall in The Problems of Knowledge (Pollock, 1986), by the time that Margot tells Mike that he is a brain in a vat, he has been a brain in a vat for three months. According to Margot, Henry, or the brain in a vat that Mike sees, receives a fictitious mental life that merges perfectly into Henry’s past life. To merge perfectly, the language and its referents that the computer generates for Henry must be indistinguishable from those before his envatment. Similarly, if Mike has been speaking English up until three months ago when he was envatted, his utterance of ‘Margot’ after envatment must have the same referent as the one he had before. It must be that now his words retain the same English referents to the same contents in order to achieve a perfect merge (Brueckner, 2012). This perfect merge makes brain* in a vat* the same as BIV, which means whether you are BIV or not, you always speak English rather than vat-English. Because there are no differences in the languages between BIV and non-BIV, the semantic arguments have nowhere to start in this case. Unless you know with certainty that all BIVs have been BIVs since they came into beings, you cannot use semantic arguments to prove that you are not a BIV. To summarize, Moore’s arguments appear to be an easy solution to the problem of knowledge, but these arguments are begging the question and therefore cannot refute the brain-in-a-vat hypotheses. It seems that Putnam’s arguments are more compelling, but still they fail to rule out all possible versions of the brain-in-a-vat hypotheses. Therefore, you cannot prove that you are a non-BIV by using either of these arguments. Works Cited Descartes, Rene. Meditations on First Philosophy. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1960. Print. Pollock, John L. Contemporary Theories of Knowledge. Totowa, NJ: Rowman Littlefield, 1986. Print. Brueckner, Tony, Skepticism and Content Externalism, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2012 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed. ), URL = .

The Potassium Atom Philosophy Essay

The Potassium Atom Philosophy Essay The Potassium atom is a member of the group one family of alkali metals. Due to the fact that group one metals have only one electron in their outer shell, means that potassium is an extremely reactive and electropositive element. A gentleman named Sir Humphrey Davy was the first to isolate this element in the year 1807 through the electrolysis of immensely dry molten caustic potash, otherwise known as Potassium Hydroxide (KOH). Its named after the the old Dutch word potaschen meaning potash. Its symbol on the periodic table is the letter K which stands for the Latin word kalium also meaning pot ash. When calculating the electron number of Potassium, we can refer to its atomic number on the periodic table as shown in the following diagram: http://exchangedownloads.smarttech.com/public/content/e4/e4296d16-d0f9-4787-bb8a-0695e616c828/previews/small/0001.png Atomic number Graphic taken from exchange.smarttech.com The atomic number will always display the figure of positively charged protons in an atom. The number of protons within the nucleus of an atom will always attract an equal number of negatively charged electrons. Potassium has an atomic number of 19 which means it has 19 protons that are attracting 19 negatively charged electrons in its neutral state. Strontium ion The Strontium atom which has lost 2 electrons is known as a Strontium ion. Strontium is a member of the group 2 alkaline earth metals. Having only two electrons in its outer shell, Strontium is highly reactive like all other group 2 metals. This element was discovered in Scotland by a gentleman named Adair Crawford in the year 1790 as the mineral strontianite. It was given its name after the Scottish village Strontian in which it was found in. However, in the year 1808, Sir Humphrey Davy was first to isolate Strontium on its own through the process of electrolysis. This comprised a mixture of mercuric oxide (HgO) and strontium chloride (SrCl2). When calculating the electron number of the Strontium ion, we can refer to the atomic number of the Strontium atom as shown on the periodic table. Atomic numberhttp://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTh8Q_XgZHS23iyIAsk1w9tJ-oRnslYnF6uVBLk2hNksebU7BKY Graphic taken from www.glogster.comglogster.com glogster.com We can see from the diagram above that the atomic number of Strontium is 38. This represents 38 positively charged protons in the nucleus that are attracting 38 negatively charged electrons in its neutral state. Strontium has 2 valence electrons in its outermost shell. The Strontium ion has a 2+ charge (Sr2+) which means it has lost two of its valence electrons. It is much easier for Strontium to lose these 2 electrons in order to achieve a noble gas state than it would be for it to gain 6 electrons to get an octet configuration. By subtracting 2 electrons from the electron number of Strontium (38), we are now able to calculate the Strontium ion as having an electron number of 36. Francium atom The Francium atom was discovered in France by a lady named Marguerite Pere in the year 1939 who named the element after her country. The element is extremely radioactive and is a member of the Group 1 alkali metals, having only one valence electron in its outer shell. Francium (Fr) is a positively charged element and is willing to lose its outermost electron to achieve its noble gas state, otherwise known as a cation. Atomic numberhttps://www.store.acs.org/eweb/images/ACSStore/PT6498_thumb.jpg Graphic taken from www.store.acs.org By referring to the periodic table, one is able to see that a neutrally charged Francium atom (Fr) has an atomic number of 87. This means that it has 87 positively charged protons in the nucleus which will attract 87 negatively charged electrons. Bromide ion The Bromine atom which has gained an electron is known as a Bromine ion. It was discovered in France by a gentleman named Antoine J Balard in the year 1826. Bromine has a particularly unpleasant smell and was therefore named after the Greek word bromos meaning stench. It is a member of the group 17 family of Halogens which are incredibly reactive, non-metal elements. Bromine, including all other elements in this group, will borrow an electron to complete its octet configuration. Atomic number Atomic numberhttp://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcS8QR1k8J5qhYBNWA25hCmFuCcgoWd-FetYIcmXlaFV1J8v7qz6FCLyBA We can see from the diagram above that the atomic number of a neutrally charged Bromine atom is 35. This shows that there are 35 positively charged protons inside the nucleus which will therefore attract 35 negatively charged electrons. Bromine has 7 valence electrons in its outermost shell. This gives the Bromide ion a -1 charge (Br -1) because it has only needed to gain 1 valence electron to get an octet configuration. It is easier for Bromine to gain one electron in order to achieve a noble gas state than it would be for it to lose 7 electrons to achieve the same result. This is why Bromine is considered to be an anion. If we add the extra one electron gained by Bromine, to its electron number of 35, we will then have the electron number for the Bromide ion which will be 36. . The Mass Spectrometer is a device designed especially to separate ions via a mass to charge ratio. It deflects and detects ions and can record their intensities. A typical device is comprised of three main parts. These parts are the ion source, a mass analyser and a detector. Once the molecule within a sample has been broken down into a gaseous state, the atoms of the sample go through a further 4 main stages. These stages are called ionisation ( the production of positively charged ions), acceleration (positively charged ions accelerated by an electric field), deflection (positively charged ions are deflected in proportion to their mass/charge ratio) and finally the detection stage (positive ions of a particular mass/charge ratio are detected). 1.2 EXPLAIN THE MEANING OF ATOMIC ORBITAL, AND DESCRIBE THE DISTRIBUTION, SHAPES AND RELATIVE ENERGY OF ELECTRON ORBITALS WITHIN THE FIRST FOUR SHELLS. Explain what you understand by the term atomic orbital. Describe the distribution, shapes and relative energy of atomic orbitals found within the first four shells in terms of the s, p, d and f orbitals An atomic orbital refers to the region of space where there is a high probability of finding an electron. It describes the movement of a single electron or a pair of electrons within the atom. Each atom is comprised of its main electron shells (hydrogen having only one main electron shell). These shells are known as quantum levels and can be broken down into sub energy level shells. The sub energy level shells can then be broken down into orbitals. Each main quantum level (identified as the K, L, M, N shells), consists of one or more sub shells. The K quantum level has only one Sub shell (S sub shell). The L quantum level has two sub shells (S and P sub shells). The M quantum level has three sub shells (S, P and D sub shells) and the N quantum level has 4 subshells (S, P, D and F sub shells). Each electron has a negative charge which means that they repel one another. Due to this repulsion, energy from these electrons is then separated into different orbitals found around the nucleus. An atomic orbital can hold up to 2 electrons with opposing spins. The S sub shell has 1 orbital and can hold up to 2 electrons. The P sub shell has 3 orbitals and can hold up to 6 electrons. The D sub shell has 5 orbitals and can hold up to 10 electrons and the F sub shell has 7 orbitals, holding up to 14 electrons. Electrons can behave as a particle and as a wave and this makes it impossible to accurately determine a pathway for an electron orbital. Werner Heisenberg was a theoretical physicist who developed The Heisenberg uncertainty principle in 1927. The Uncertainty Principle was to describe the impossibility of knowing both the position of an electron and the velocity of an electron simultaneously. Louis de Broglie was a French physicist who thought that anything which had a mass will also behave like a wave. However, it didnt seem as though objects with mass such as basket balls and people, actually had any wave properties at all. This is because the wave property is inversely proportional to the mass, so an object with a very tiny mass like an electron will have a very significant wave property. In 1927 an Austrian physicist name Erwin Schrodinger defined what an electron was doing inside of an atom based on it being a wave and not as a particle. He formulated The Schrà ¶dinger equation (H Ã‚ ¹ = E Ã‚ ¹). The equation allowed one to obtain a set of mathematical equations known as wave functions ( Ã‚ ¹) and by knowing these wave functions; one could describe the probable location and velocity of an electron at a certain energy level within the atom. From the equation, four quantum numbers were derived. These numbers are used to pin point the probable location of an electron and describe the orbital it is occupying. It is rather like a postal code, even though it doesnt give its precise location, it does provide one with an electrons general location in space. The 4 quantum numbers correspond to the principle quantum level number (n) which can be any integer from 1-7, the subshell quantum number (l) which can be any integer from 0 to n-1, the orbital quantum number (ml) which has integral values between 1, 0, -1 and the electron spin quantum number (ms) which has two possible values of +1/2 and -1/2. By referring to these 4 numbers, one can predict the dista nce the electron is from the nucleus, the shape of the orbital, the position of the orbital and the spin of the electron. S orbital Graphic used from angelfire.com B C AThe diagram on the left displays the S orbital occupying the first 3 energy levels. Each main energy level has an S orbital. Diagram a is the 1s orbital. The number 1 informs us that the orbital is in the energy level closest to the nucleus. Diagram b is the 2s orbital. This orbital is in the second energy level. Diagram c is the 3s orbital and is in the third energy level. The s describes the orbitals shape, with all S orbitals having a spherically symmetric (non directional) shape around the nucleus. The 2s and 3s electrons have a higher energy than the 1s electrons. This means that the 2s and 3s electrons are on average, further away from the nucleus and this increases the size of the orbital making the 2s and 3s orbitals larger than the 1s orbital. The corresponding (l) value of the S orbital is 0 which means that the value of (ml) is also 0. http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTTNiJ4lHuR9TGSUhTt1dd1JKleilD3u2hiHKkrJZ7sTKQVPM3A1To8hEn8FA P orbital Graphic used from chemtube3d.com The P orbitals appear different to S orbitals and this is because they follow a certain direction, unlike the non-directional (spherical) S orbital. The P orbital appears on the second energy level also with the 2s orbital and can inhabit 6 electrons whilst the 2s orbital is only able to inhabit 2 electrons. There are three 2p orbitals which are all oriented perpendicular to one another. These orbitals are given the symbols px, py and pz to correspond to their position on the x, y, z axis. A P orbital consists of 2 lobes which can inhabit 2 electrons. However, once each P orbital has a single electron, then they will start to form pairs and fill each orbital with 2 electrons. As the energy levels increase, the P orbitals will get bigger in size (2p, 3p, 4p) which means that the space where the electron is likely to be found is a further distance away from the nucleus. The P orbital has an (l) value of 1 and an (ml) value of -1, 0, +1 because there are three possible orientations of t he orbital in 3d space.http://www.chemtube3d.com/images/porbitals.png D orbital Graphic used from angelfire.com http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTN3yvcX0Bp8llWJ80LaCj1mXYKffA_yQ_1UPwKpCEPLy38DAy92paVouDU Presented in the diagram on the left are five D orbitals on an x, y, z axis. The D orbitals (dyz, dxy, dz2, dxz, dx-y2) exist at the third energy level also with the 3s orbital and the 3px, 3py, 3pz orbitals. Each individual D orbital has a different orientation in 3 dimensional space and can inhibit up to 2 electrons, which is a total of 10 electrons between them. The surface of the D orbital and all of the space within it constitutes the space in which one is most likely to find the electron. The D orbital has an (l) value of 2 and as there are five different possible orientations of this orbital in 3d space, it has an (ml) value of -2, -1, 0, +1, +2. F orbitals Graphic used from angelfire.com There are seven F orbitals that exist on the fourth energy level as well as the 4s orbital, the 4px, 4py, 4pz orbitals and the 4dyz, 4dxy, 4dz2, 4dxz, 4dx-y2 orbitals. Each individual F orbital can hold up to 2 electrons which is a total of 14 electrons between them. If we were to plot the positions of the electron within the F orbital in all of the different locations it was found, we would start to form a 3 dimensional map of the places that the electron has travelled in. These 3 dimensional maps are described in the diagrams shown on the right hand side. Each of these shapes represent where the electron is most likely to be found 90% of the time. The F orbital has an (l) value of 3 and as http://www.angelfire.com/falcon2/dirgni/f.gif There are seven different possible orientations of this orbital in 3d space, It has an (ml) value of -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3. 1.3 APPLY THE AUFBAU PRINCIPLE, HUNDS RULE AND PAULI PRINCIPLE TO THE WRITING OF THE FULL ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATIONS FOR ANY ELEMENT WITH AN ATOMIC NUMBER BETWEEN 1 AND 36 Describe what you understand by the Aufbau Principle, Hunds Rule and Pauli Principle. In terms of the above, show the full electronic configuration of any element with an atomic number between 12 and 36 When it comes to filling electron energy diagrams, one has to obey three different rules. These rules are known as The Aufbau Principle, Hunds Rules and the Pauli Exclusion Principle. The Aufbau Principle explains that orbitals of lowest energy are filled first from the bottom and then upwards. Hands rule principle states that if we were to have multiple orbitals of the same energy, then one should place an orbital in each before they double up. The Pauli Principle states that no two electrons in an atom have the same four quantum numbers. All three rules are explained in further detail below. Aufbau Principle The Aufbau Principle was founded by two physicists named Neils Bohr and Wolfgang Pauli in the 1920s. The name originates from a German expression, meaning to build out. The principle describes the way electrons are added to an atom or a molecule and shows that orbitals of a lower energy are filled before orbitals of a higher energy. It shows us that an orbital can only inhibit 2 electrons at most with no two electrons having the same four quantum numbers within an atom. Pauli Exclusion Principle The Pauli Exclusion Principle was formulated by a Gentleman named Wolfgang Pauli in the year 1925. Fermions are any particles such as electrons, protons and neutrons which have an odd half spin. The Pauli Exclusion Principle explains that no two fermions can occupy the same quantum state. However, Bosons which are particles that have an integer spin (0,1,2,3..) and carry force, do not obey the Pauli Exclusion Principle. Test results described fermions as being repelled by the Pauli Exclusion Principle when the temperature dropped whilst Boson particles were not repelled. The Principle explains why electrons are kept increasingly further away from the nucleus when quantum states fill up, balanced by the attractive electric force between the electron and the positively charged nucleus. It has been discovered that some stars are held up by degenerate pressure which resulted from the Pauli Exclusion Principle. Hunds Rules The Hunds Rules were a set of formulated rules developed by a German Physicist named Friedrich Hund in 1927. The Hunds rule of maximum multiplicity explains the particular order that electrons fill subshells. The Rule says that the electron will inhibit orbitals of an equal energy level in order to create the largest multitude of orbitals having an electron within them. It clearly states that when one is to fill up a subshell, they should start by putting electrons in the individual orbitals of 2p (such as 2px then 2py, then 2pz) instead of filling each orbital up with two electrons before continuing on to the next orbital of the axis. Simply, the orbitals of a subshell must be occupied singly and with parallel spins before they occupy in pairs. The Hunds rule teaches that the greater the total spin state of the electron will result in making the atom a lot more stable, manifested most commonly in a lower energy state. This is due to the fact that it forces the unpaired electrons to inhibit in different spatial orbitals. Below is the a diagram showing the application of the three rules (Aufbau Principle, PEP, Hunds Rule) when building the electron configuration for Sulphur (S) in group 6 on the periodic table. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4http://img174.imageshack.us/img174/9436/electronicconfigurationvv8.jpg 3P 3S 2P Above is a diagram of the Bohr model of sulphur atom taken from mugging-chocobos.blogspot.com In the diagram above, we can see that all 3 rules have been applied. The Aufbau principle (building from the bottom upwards), the Pauli Exclusion Principle (2 electrons with opposing spin within each orbital) and the Hunds Rule (each individual electron will inhibit a spatial orbital separate from one another before pairing up in the same orbital). 1S 2S

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Effects of the Government on the Economy

Effects of the Government on the Economy This essay articulates the principles, relationship between micro economic and macroeconomic by doing research in regard to this essay we can assume that government play a major role in economics such as price control, policies, increasing wages of employees and making decision in the market place however we can also assume economic policies are not influenced if they are not almost generally determined by acceptance of some of these mistakes. Perhaps the shortest and surest way to an understanding of economics is through segmentation of such errors, and particularly of the central error from which they stem. In addition economics is all about policies how society decides what, how, and for whom to produce. INTRODUCTION Human being intend to be able to solve living basic problem such as what goods and services to produce, how to produce these goods and services and for whom to produce these goods and services. Economics is the study of how society decides what, how, and for whom to produce. Economics is also about human behaviour we also could describe it as a science rather than a subject within the arts or humanities. This reflects the way economics analyse problems, not the subject matter of economics. Economist aim to develop theories of human behaviour and to test them against the facts moreover good economics retains an element of art, for it is only by having a feel for how people actually behave that economists can focus their analysis on the right issues. But what exactly is economics? Task1: Most modern definitions of economics involve the notions of choice and scarcity. Possibly the earliest of these is by Lionell Robbins in 1935: Economics is a science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses. Virtually all textbooks have definitions that are derived from this definition. Although the exact wording differs from author to author, the standard definition is something like this: Economics is the social science that examines how people choose to use limited or scarce resources in attempting to satisfy their unlimited wants. Scarcity means that people want more than is available. Scarcity limits us both as individuals and as a society. As individuals, limited income (time and ability) keep us from doing and having all that we might like. As a society, limited resources (such as man power, machinery, and natural resources) fix a maximum on the amount of the goods and services that can be produced. b) Concept of opportunity cost: This concept of scarcity leads to the idea of opportunity cost. The opportunity cost of an action is what you must give up when you make that choice. Another way to say this is: it is the value of the next best opportunity. Opportunity cost is a direct implication of scarcity. People have to choose between different alternatives when deciding how to spend their money and their time. Milton Friedman, who won the Nobel Prize for economics is fond of saying there is no such thing as a free lunch. What that means is that in a world of scarcity, everything has an opportunity cost. There is always a trade-off involved in any decision you make. The concept of opportunity cost is one of the most important ideas in economics. Consider the question, How much does it cost to go to college for a year? We could add up the direct costs like tuition, books, school supplies, etc. These are examples of explicit costs, i.e., costs that require a money payment. However, these costs are small compared to the value of the time it takes to attend class, do homework, etc. The amount that the student could have earned if she had worked rather than attended school is the implicit cost of attending college. Implicit costs are costs that do not require a money payment. The opportunity cost includes both explicit and implicit costs. C) Microeconomics is the study of decisions that people and businesses make regarding the allocation of resources and prices of goods and services. This means also taking into income taxes and regulations created by governments. MicroeconomicsÂÂ  focuses onÂÂ  supply and demand and other forces that determine the price levels seen in the economy. For example, microeconomics would look at how a specific company could maximize its production and capacity soÂÂ  it could lowerÂÂ  prices and better compete in its industry. Macroeconomics, on the other hand,ÂÂ  is the field of economics that studies the behaviour of the economy as a whole and not just on specific companies, but entire industries and economies. This looks at economy-wide phenomena, such asÂÂ  Gross National Product (GDP) and how it is affected by changes in unemployment, national, rate of growth, and price levels. For example, macroeconomics would look at how an increase/decrease in net exports would affect a nationsÂÂ  capital account or how GDP would be affected by unemployment rate. While these two learning of economics appear to be different, they are actually interdependent and complement one another since there are many overlapping issues between the two fields. For example, increased inflation (macro effect) would cause the price of raw materials to increase for companies and in turn affect the end products price charged to the public. http://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/110.asp Task2: In this particular task I am going to explain the existing relationship between demand and price also will be giving more detail related to market demand curve and factors affecting demand. According to some researchers demand can be defined as the quantity of a good buyers wish to purchase at each conceivable price, market demand could also be defined as a set of arrangements by which buyers and sellers are in contact to exchange goods or services. The relationship between demand and price describes the behaviour of buyers at every price at every particular price there should be quantity demanded the term quantity demanded makes sense only in relation to a particular price for example in everyday language we say that when the demand for a football match tickets exceeds their supply some people will not get into the ground. Demand curve shows the relation between price and quantity demanded the other things relevant to demand curves can usually be grouped under three groups: the price of goods, the income of consumers and consumer tastes or preferences. Price controls are government rules or laws that forbid the adjustment of prices to clear market for example high food prices mean considerable hardship for the poor the government would prefer to impose a price ceiling on food in order to help the poor to continue purchasing adequate food quantities. In order to be effective a price ceiling must be imposed below the free market equilibrium price therefore it is going to reduce the quantity supplied and lead to excess demand unless government itself provides the extra quantity required. The main factor affecting demand is consumer revenues; consumers intend to purchase a product in order to satisfy their due to their incomes however quantities of demand could increase as consumer incomes rise for example low income people satisfy their needs for clothes by buying low quality clothes as their incomes rise they switch to better quality clothes. Market demand curve is the sum of the demand curves of all individuals in that particular market by asking, at each price, how much each person demands. it also could the horizontal addition of individual demand curves Individual Demand Curve By looking at the graph we could what an important role price plays in the market therefore we can conclude in this demand of goods or services depend on the price and also on consumer incomes the graphs summarise the demand responses to changes in incomes it also show us the effect of income increases although income rises increase the quantity demanded of goods by consumers. Task 3: In this particular task I am going to explain how an equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity can be achieved and also the effects of excess supply, demand on market equilibrium. According to David Begg economic equilibrium is a state of the world where economic forces are balanced and in the absence of external influences the (equilibrium) values of economic variables will not change. It is the point at which quantity demanded and quantities supplied are equal, for example, refers to a condition where a market price is established through competition such that the amount of goods or services sought by buyers is equal to the amount of goods or services produced by sellers. Price controls are government rules or laws that forbid the adjustment of prices to clear market for instance we can assume that when price controls are maintained for many years they may have further repercussions. For example many countries have imposed rent controls limiting the rent a landlord can charge for accommodation. Countries such as the UK have had price ceilings for many years in the rental market in also failed to raise insignificant amount with the inflation therefore many private landlord have quit the business. There are many reasons why government wish to intervene in a free market to set prices as a result prices are set the market forces ( where demand and supply vary) but in some cases government will need to set prices for different products. For instance the European Union EU has used minimum prices for farmers it is also could be argued farmers incomes are too low therefore minimum prices can be used to increase prices above the equilibrium however the government decided to have price controls in farming to encourage farmers to supply as much as possible. This graph show us the existing relation between equilibrium price and demand and also how an equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity can be achieved however we could conclude on this task that equilibrium price is the price at which the quantity demanded by consumers and the quantity at which companies offer services and goods . Task 4: Perfect competition: Economist definition of perfect competition is different from the meaning of competition in everyday usage in economic theory a perfect competition can be defined as a description of markets such that no participants are large enough to have the market power to set the price of a homogeneous product. Because the conditions for perfect competition are strict, there are few if any perfectly competitive markets. Still, buyers and sellers in some auction-type markets say for commodities or some financial assets may approximate the concept. Economic markets in many sectors can be described by the term oligopoly this is where few producers dominate the majority of the industry and the market, perfect competition operate on a number of different assumptions. Economist also assumes there a number of a different buyers and sellers in the marketplace this could lead to a perfect competition in the market which could allow price to change in demand and supply. Perfect competition can be characterized by many sellers and buyers, many products that are similar in nature and as a result of many substitutes, for example in a perfectly competitive market a single firm decide to increase its selling price of a good, the consumers can just turn to the nearest competitor for a better price, affecting any firm that increases its price to lose market share and revenues. According to Stanley Fisher An oligopoly is a market dominated by a few producers, each of which has control over the market. It is an industry where there is a high level of market concentration. However, oligopoly is best defined by the conduct (or behaviour) of firms within a market rather than its market structure. Characteristics of oligopoly can be by competition other than price. Price wars , cutting prices in the market where all large firms tend simply to lead to lower profits, changing little market shares, instead , oligopolistic companies intend to charge relatively high prices but also compete through promotion and advertisement but existing firms can be safer from new companies entering the market because entry barriers to the market are high, for example existing successful brands have a number of a products considerably promoted in the other hand it will be difficult for a new company to establish its own new brand in the market. This graph show us how important perfect competition is in the market in order to launch new product firms will need to follow some entry barriers and have some requirements and follow government policies such price control. Task 5: In this particular I am going to give an explanation and evaluation of what is meant by Keynesian, Monetarist economics: According to Keynesian theory, some microeconomic-level actions if taken collectively by a large proportion of individuals and firms can lead to inefficient aggregate macroeconomic outcomes, where the economy operates below its potential output and growth rate. Such a situation had previously been referred to by classical economists as a general glut. Keynesian economics: during recession periods when aggregate demand is insufficient, monetary and fiscal expansion can boost demand, product and employment in 1930 Britain was partly pulled out the slump of Keynesian policy of government heavy spending on rearmament as the threat of war loomed however in the three decades after 1945 governments of both political parties in Britain attempted to implement the Keynesian policy in order to manage the level of aggregate demand but some of the policy did not work perfectly . In the decade after 1965 both inflation and unemployment grew fairly steadily which build up inflation proved to be a costly after effect Keynesian policies. Today we are more doubtful about the success of the activist period of 1950 and 1960. Keynesian economics proceeds on the assumption that price level given but what can happen if the price level change for example when the economy is near full employment and there is no longer space capacity to make companies think before raising price of products or increasing wages of their employees. On the other hand Keynesian government should be able to tackle unemployment issues otherwise effects of unemployment could reduce production of goods. According to Monetarism theory the governments proper economic role is to control the rate of inflation by controlling the amount of money in circulation. It is the view within monetary economics that variation in the money supply has major influences on national output in the short run and the price level over longer periods and that objectives of monetary policy are best met by targeting the growth rate of the money supply . Finally we can conclude that there is much about which all economists agree but there are some important differences of opinion, both in the positive economics of how the world we are living actually works and in the normative economics of how the government should behave in the market. Due to market power economist intend to play a role in the market by solving problem faced by consumers such as price rises therefore they intend to have price ceiling for each product and I have learn economic is just not a science subject it is there to reconcile the conflict between people virtually unlimited demand with society limited ability to produce goods and services to fulfil these demands.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

The Science Guys - Theories of Evolution :: essays research papers

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) Today, the name of Lamarck is associated merely with a discredited theory of heredity, the "inheritance of acquired traits." However, Charles Darwin, Lyell, Haeckel, and other early evolutionists acknowledged him as a great zoologist and as a forerunner of evolution. To be fair to Lamarck, we should mention that since the time of Linnaeus, few naturalists had considered the invertebrates worthy of study. The word "invertebrates" did not even exist at the time; Lamarck coined it. The invertebrate collections at the Musà ©e were enormous and rapidly growing, but poorly organized and classified. Although the professors at the Musà ©e were theoretically equal in rank, the professorship of "insects and worms" was definitely the least prestigious. But Lamarck took on the enormous challenge of learning -- and creating -- a new field of biology. The sheer number and diversity of invertebrates proved to be both a challenge and a rich source of knowledge. What Lamarck actually believed was more complex: organisms are not passively altered by their environment. Instead, a change in the environment causes changes in the needs of organisms living in that environment, which in turn causes changes in their behavior. Altered behavior leads to greater or lesser use of a given structure or organ; use would cause the structure to increase in size over several generations, whereas disuse would cause it to shrink or even disappear. This rule -- that use or disuse causes structures to enlarge or shrink -- Lamarck called the "First Law" in his book Philosophie zoologique. Lamarck's "Second Law" stated that all such changes were heritable. The result of these laws was the continuous, gradual change of all organisms, as they became adapted to their environments; the physiological needs of organisms, created by their interactions with the environment, drive Lamarckian evolution. Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) Carl Linnaeus, also known as Carl von Linnà © or Carolus Linnaeus, is often called the Father of Taxonomy. His system for naming, ranking, and classifying organisms is still in wide use today (with many changes). Erusmus Darwin He did discuss ideas that his grandson elaborated on sixty years later, such as how life evolved from a single common ancestor, forming "one living filament". He wrestled with the question of how one species could evolve into another. Although some of his ideas on how evolution might occur are quite close to those of Lamarck, Erasmus Darwin also talked about how competition and sexual selection could cause changes in species

Friday, July 19, 2019

George Orwells Nineteen Eighty-Four 1984 :: Free Essays on 1984

1984 was written by George Orwell about a grim future in which people are controlled by a party known as the brotherhood which is led by Big Brother. The background of the story is that nuclear war has ravaged the earth and three superpowers have arisen out of the rubble, Oceania, Eurasia, and Eastasia, all of which are at war with each other. The leading party in Oceania, where the story take place, exerts and maintains its power through such techniques as the Spies, a youth group that encourages children to report adults, including their parents, to the party officials. Another technique is the thought police, who observe and spy on society and eliminate those who have thoughts against the party.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The party engages in many activities that people would consider blatantly wrong. These include the changing of history with the objective of making the party look good. The worst thing about the party is that it makes up the things it has the people believe through its telecasts, which the entire population watches. The main character is Winston, who works for the Ministry of Truth, which is an ironic name since it makes up what the people are to believe. Winston has thoughts all the time against the party but luckily has never been caught by the thought police. He keeps on seeing some woman and eventually they meet and he finds out her name is Julia. She also hates the party and they keep on meeting, even though it is against the policy of the party for two people to have sexual relations. They break the rule however and end up having sex outside the city. They differ in their view of how best to oppose the party. He believes in a widespread rebellion while she b elieves in just going against the party when it is safe. Eventually, they come to follow a man named O’Brien who is the leader of an opposition party to the brotherhood. He gives the couple a book by a man named Goldstein that is against the brother hood. He reads the book but soon after is arrested by the thought police because there was a hidden camera inside his room. It turns out that O’Brien was a thought police that had tricked them. Both he and Julia are taken away large cells with all the other people that have betrayed the party.

Outsourcing IT Jobs: Pros And Cons Essay -- Outsourcing Globalization

Outsourcing IT Jobs: Pros and Cons In 1973, a monumental shift was prevailing where U.S. companies were sending low skilled jobs within the manufacturing industry to offshore countries to reduce labor cost while maximizing profits. The effect of the jobless manufacturing work force was a shift of those laborers to focus on and perfect the service industry of what it is today (Koch 1). During the high tech recessions of the late 1990s and a nominal expansion of the present time, the Information Technology industry, an industry which through continuous innovations enabled the companies and corporations of America to become more efficient and productive, is also facing the outsourcing similarity with manufacturing. While outsourcing manufacturing jobs offshore requires movement of raw materials and building new factories, Information Technology jobs could be outsourced much quicker than manufacturing jobs, as the majority of its roles and responsibilities are mobile. Overseas outsourcing of IT jobs has quickly become a controversial national issue. Outsourcing involves far more complicated advantages and disadvantages than the debaters on either side are willing to admit (Weidenbaum). Outsourcing can help a company operate in an increasingly competitive global marketplace. Outsourcing can enable a business to provide 24/7 coverage, especially for consumers who need around-the-clock support (Weidenbaum). In the next several paragraphs, I will discuss from a microeconomic level the actions that my employer implemented to take advantage of globalizing the work force to reduce costs, the issues my organization is facing with offshore efforts on the other hand, and then the cost associated with this trend towards macroeconomic wi... ...el to the U.S. macroeconomic perspective. Therefore, in the best interest of the American economy, political influences should intervene by either providing corporate tax breaks to offset the labor cost or slow the off shoring efforts by making U.S. companies aware of all the complications that go along with outsourcing Information Technology jobs overseas. Works Cited Goodwin, Bill. â€Å"Outsourcing users taken by surprised†. Computer Weekly. (2006): 4. Koch, Christopher. â€Å"Back Lash.† CIO Magazine. (2003): 1 – 3. http://www.cio.com/archive/090103/backlash.html Koch, Chris. â€Å"What CIOs Can Do.† CIO Magazine. (2003): 1. Terry, Rory L. â€Å"Answers on Outsourcing.† CNN Money Magazine. (2004): 1 – 3. Weidenbaum, Murray. â€Å"Outsourcing: Pros and Cons†. Executives Speeches (2004): 31 - 35 http://www.cio.com/archive/090103/backlash_sidebar_2.html

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Belonging Is More Than a Connection to a Place; It Also Means Being at Home Within Yourself and Knowing Who You Are

Belonging is an essential part of human life that is not always just a connection to a place; it is a feeling of being at home within yourself and having the patience to discover who you are. Being at home within yourself is a process that is not instantaneous and this is evident in the film Ten Canoes and the poem ‘Digging’. Through characters and text specific techniques, the film and poem portray processes of how developing an understanding of group dynamics and relationships allows one to gain a sense of personal belonging, deeper than merely a connection to a place. Understanding the group dynamics and laws relating to specific cultures allows one to avoid alienation and feel comfortable as an individual. The narrative voice of David Gulpilil in Ten Canoes invites the audience into his story of the covetous youth, Dayindi and his older brother who has three wives, Minygululu. Minygululu also has a story to tell, diachronically through time to that of the ancestors, Yeeralparil and Rijimiraril, not to the audience but to Dayindi, â€Å"to help him live the proper way†, however the audience is still involved through the narration of David Gulpilil, â€Å"it is Minygululu’s story for Dayindi back then, and it is my story for you now† so the audience can learn this ‘proper way’ too. Dayindi is introduced through the voice over as a young and somewhat naive boy who lusts for his brother’s youngest wife and resents living in the single mans camp. It is obvious Dayindi does not quite belong to this clan, despite his connection to the tribe and the land through birth, â€Å"they make fun of Dayindi, they know he is liking the younger wife of his brother Minygululu†. Dayindi steps outside what is socially accepted as the proper way, the law and this alienates him. Dayindi is impatient and throughout the story states, â€Å"the only thing he learned is that Minygululu take long time to tell a story†, but through this drawn out story Dayindi learns that understanding the right way is not an instantaneous process but it requires patience. By learning the laws, the ‘proper way’, Dayindi overcomes his wrongful desires of the young wife and achieves a sense of belonging to the tribe that comes from his own personal realisation of who is he is and what is right. The poem ‘Digging’ also depicts how an understanding of what is morally accepted within a culture enhances how an individual belongs within themselves. The Irish poem arrests the attention of the reader with a smile, â€Å"the squat pen rests; as snug as a gun†, hinting at the fraught context of poem, written during a time of war. The persona then seems to escape the brutal reality of life at this time by going back diachronically in time, a technique similar to that of the ancestral story within a story, depicted in Ten Canoes. He goes back to a memory of watching his father digging, through the proud memory of the hard working men of his family, â€Å"could cut more turf in a day than any other man on Toner’s bog† inspires within him a new determination. â€Å"I’ve no spade to follow men like them†, however, â€Å"the squat pen rests. I’ll dig with it†. The pen is no longer associated with a snug gun and its unlawful violence, but the concept that ideas win wars and he will dig for ideas. He can still belong to this family of hardworking diggers now he has an understanding of how he can work hard with the other tool available to him, the lawful one, and through this understanding a new determination and sense of home within oneself is gained. Through relationships of kinship and ancestors one can achieve a sense of belonging within themselves from knowing where they come from and what this means. In Ten Canoes, Dayindi’s kinship with his brother and link to his ancestor Yeeralparil allow him to overcome his lust for Minygululu’s young wife and feel at home within himself. Minygululu, does not chastise Dayindi in the film for having feelings for his younger wife, but casually tells him a story to help him. This strengthens the somewhat disrupted relationship between the two brothers and Dayindi learns, â€Å"one important thing in his life. He is learning to be patient†. With the patience that his brother teaches him, Dayindi accepts his position in the tribe and knows one day he will have a wife, but he must wait and do things the right way. Through the story being told of Yeeralparil, Dayindi relates to this ancestor and in the film, the two characters are played by the same actor, Jamie Gulpilil which enhances this relationship between the two young men. Dayindi learns that for Yeeralparil, the fantasy of the youngest wife never become a reality, even when his brother Rijimiraril dies, and so he too knows within himself the same fate is for him. Through the two relationships Dayindi learns to accept that he will never be with the young wife and this realisation allows him to lose his resentment and do what is right in the tribe in order to belong. In the poem ‘Digging’ the persona maintains a sense of belonging through the relationship he has with his family. â€Å"The old man could handle a spade, just like his old man. † The proud recognition of his family history is obvious through the finely observed memory with strong details that engage all of the senses, allowing the audience to be a part of this diachronic experience, â€Å"the cold smell†, the â€Å"soggy peat†, and â€Å"straining rump†. Through this detailed description and admiration of his hardworking family the audience can see that he feels a strong sense of belonging with these people. But he is not immediately apart of that group as the audience is informed at the beginning of the poem, he is an office man, an educated man with not a shovel but a â€Å"squat pen† rested in his hand. It is only through a feeling of being at home within himself, and the feelings of home that he has held onto from his past that he can still belong to his ancestors. Although Dayindi belongs to his tribe and the land through his birth rights he needs more than a connection to a place in order to belong. It is only when he learns the process of understanding the laws and accepting his place through a strengthening relationship with his brother that he feels he belongs within himself and ultimately his tribe. The poem ‘Digging’ enforces similar processes of family kinship and understanding how to overcome breaking the law in order to belong within oneself. Through knowing group dynamics and having strong relationships, a deeper sense of belonging is created, a feeling of being at home within yourself.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Accounting Principles and Health Care Essay

There atomic number 18 no lump account tenets that apply to wellness cover. However, thither argon cinque generally authentic guiding principles used in the solicitude of the fiscal aspects of wellness direction caution (Cleverly, Song & Cleverly, 2011). Understanding the five guiding principles ar important in dread financial information and managerial accounting and how the principles relate to health awe (Cleverly et. al. ). The five principles hold, accounting entity, bills measurement, duality, cost valuation, and abiding monetary whole.Each principle and how it relates to health care is discussed in the following (Cleverly et. al. ). account Entity An accounting entity is the business or friendship that performs clear economic activities, separate from whatsoever personal economic endeavors (Accounting Tools, 2010). An accounting entity requires financial records that define financial activities (Cleverly et. al. ). In health care, accounting entities dope be hospitals, clinics, or other entities that are part of a larger corporation.See more affectionate process essayAccounting is adapt to measure and report the financial activities of the entities under(a) consideration. Money bar Money Measurement is very simply, a course to prevent count and records of the incoming and outgoing tax income of the accounting entity. This is not an easy business and involves consideration of various issues (Cleverly et. al. ). Resources and liabilities live to be considered and calculated to determine accurate coin measurement. Resources are also referred to as assets. scarce resources are things, supplies, gold, and other things or resources that are needed by the company in order to generate money. These resources are circumscribed and necessary to the entities operation (Cleverly et. al. ). This whitethorn include nursing staff for heath care organizations. Other scarce resources for health care organizations may include buildings, ma ny antithetical kinds of medical supplies, medications, and other supplies to care for patients and give the organization. Assets are the resources that the organization has and the money generated.Liabilities are resources that are owed for services, supplies and other things that the organization has acquired. The elevated goal of any business is for the assets to be greater than the liabilities (Cleverly et. al. ). Duality Duality is a fair mathematical equation or rather, it seems simple. The equation states, The mensurate of assets essential of all time equal the combined repute of liabilities and equilibrium interest, which we have called net assets. (Cleverly et. al. pg. 185 para. 1) This requires balancing reports most changes in either side of the equation.In health care, for instance, changes such as bargain for supplies, receiving comportment for services, or paying the electrical bill are all proceeding that require balancing the books, so to speak, so tha t the equation is withal equal. Cost paygrade Cost Valuation can be defined as choosing the right bell for services, supplies and other things of value (Hutton, 2005). Choosing the right value may be found on the history of what the entity has paid that is reflected by money measurement or may be based on other measures of what a cost should be (Cleverly et. al. . Market value is a expression to assess a cost value.This seems to be favorite way with many organizations. This method is not considered objective, until now and can provide different opinions on what an item is worth, making costing catchy (Cleverly et. al. ). Replacement value is another way of choosing the right price. This gives the cost of how much money it would take to replace an item or service (Cleverly et. al. ). In health care for instance, when costing an expensive piece of medical equipment, replacement value makes more mavin than market value.The organization may gravel different quotes on market va lue but replacement value should be more consistent and reliable. Stable fiscal Unit The stable money unit is our country is the long horse. The horse is used in money measurement and other principles that have money values attached. The dollar is evermore the dollar but the value can change based on the miserliness and inflation (Cleverly et. al. ). An example of how this might encroachment health care is, suppose the organization, based on replacement value, has allotted a certain amount of money to purchase an expensive medical devise.Before the purchase has been made, the dollar reducings in value or is unavailable and has to be imported. The value of the dollar has changed the country from which the item is imported from may have dwelld a decrease in the value of the United States Dollar. The dollar is still a stable monetary unit though there may be fluctuations due to inflation or other events.Conclusion There are no specific hard rules that determine accounting the five guiding principles of accounting are used to help organizations fete track of the entitys assets and liabilities.The principles are not perfect but serve as a guide to costing and money measurement. The stable money unit in our country is the dollar. The dollar may experience fluctuations in value but is still considered stable and how the United States measure and pay for any expenses. The five principles seem simple and as one looks into each principle further, it is noted that there are complexities and problems that must remain in the forefront of the accountants mind when keeping up with the financial end of any organization.